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Micromachines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1463
Rosnita Md Aspan ◽  
Noshin Fatima ◽  
Ramizi Mohamed ◽  
Ubaidah Syafiq ◽  
Mohd Adib Ibrahim

Chalcogenide, tin selenide-based thermoelectric (TE) materials are Earth-abundant, non-toxic, and are proven to be highly stable intrinsically with ultralow thermal conductivity. This work presented an updated review regarding the extraordinary performance of tin selenide in TE applications, focusing on the crystal structures and their commonly used fabrication methods. Besides, various optimization strategies were recorded to improve the performance of tin selenide as a mid-temperature TE material. The analyses and reviews over the methodologies showed a noticeable improvement in the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, with a noticeable decrement in the thermal conductivity, thereby enhancing the tin selenide figure of merit value. The applications of SnSe in the TE fields such as microgenerators, and flexible and wearable devices are also discussed. In the future, research in low-dimensional TE materials focusing on nanostructures and nanocomposites can be conducted with the advancements in material science technology as well as microtechnology and nanotechnology.

2021 ◽  
Kuan Sun ◽  
Yongjie He ◽  
Qi Zhang ◽  
Hanlin Cheng ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  

Abstract Harvesting energy from the environment to power the self-sustained systems has long been desired1,2. Ionic thermoelectric (i-TE) material with mobile ions as charge carriers has the advantage to generate large thermal voltages at low operating temperatures3-5. Recent works improved the thermopower substantially by modifying the polymer matrix of the i-TE hydrogels6-9. But the mobile ions have not been systematically studied in the context of i-TE hydrogels. This study highlights the role of ions in i-TE hydrogels employing a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer matrix and a number of ion providers, e.g. KOH, KNO3, KCl, KBr, NaI, KI, and CsI. The relationship between the intrinsic physical parameters of the ion and the thermoelectric performance is established, indicating electronegativity of the cation and the ability to influence the hydrogen bond by the anion are two crucial factors. Among these i-TE hydrogels, PVA/CsI hydrogel exhibits the largest ionic Seebeck coefficient, reaching 52.9 mV K-1, which is the greatest of all i-TE materials reported till date. In addition, PVA/NaI hydrogel exhibits excellent TE properties, with a record ZT value of 5.09 at room temperature. This flexible, inexpensive hydrogel that compatible with large-scale manufacturing shows great promise for low-grade thermal energy harvesting.

2021 ◽  
Kunpeng Zhao ◽  
Chenxi Zhu ◽  
Min Zhu ◽  
Hongyi Chen ◽  
Jindan Lei ◽  

Abstract To date, thermoelectric materials research stays focused on optimizing the material’s band edge details and disfavors low mobility. Here, we shifts the paradigm from the band edge to the mobility edge, exploring high thermoelectricity near the border of band conduction and hopping. Through co-alloying iodine and sulfur, we modularize the plain crystal structure of liquid-like thermoelectric material Cu2Te with mosaic nanodomains and the highly size mismatched S/Te sublattice that chemically quenches the Cu sublattice and drives the electronic states from itinerant to localized. A state-of-the-art figure of merit of 1.4 is obtained at 850 K for Cu2(S0.4I0.1Te0.5); and remarkably, it is achieved near the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit unlike mainstream thermoelectric materials that are band conductors. Broadly, pairing structural modularization with the high performance near the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit paves an important new path towards the rational design of high-performance thermoelectric materials. Thermoelectric (TE) material-based energy conversion technology has attracted increasing global attention in virtue of the technical merits such as no moving parts, no greenhouse emission, noiseless, friendliness for miniaturization, and reliability.1–4 Based on the Seebeck and Peltier effects, thermoelectricity enables a direct energy conversion between temperature difference and electricity.5, 6 The performance of a TE material is primarily gauged by the material’s figure of merit, zT = S2T/ρκ, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, T is the absolute temperature, ρ is the electrical resistivity, and κ is the total thermal conductivity (consisting of the lattice thermal conductivity κL and the electronic thermal conductivity κE).

Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 1091
Farheen F. Jaldurgam ◽  
Zubair Ahmad ◽  
Farid Touati

Thermoelectricity is a promising technology that directly converts heat energy into electricity and finds its use in enormous applications. This technology can be used for waste heat recovery from automobile exhausts and industrial sectors and convert the heat from solar energy, especially in hot and humid areas such as Qatar. The large-scale, cost-effective commercialization of thermoelectric generators requires the processing and fabrication of nanostructured materials with quick, easy, and inexpensive techniques. Moreover, the methods should be replicable and reproducible, along with stability in terms of electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the TE material. This report summarizes and compares the up-to-date technologies available for batch production of the earth-abundant and ecofriendly materials along with some notorious works in this domain. We have also evaluated and assessed the pros and cons of each technique and its effect on the properties of the materials. The simplicity, time, and cost of each synthesis technique have also been discussed and compared with the conventional methods.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 37
Olena Okhay ◽  
Alexander Tkach

In recent years, worldwide research has been focused on clean and sustainable energy sources that can respond to the exponentially rising energy demands of humankind. The harvesting of unused heat in relation to automotive exhaustion, industrial processes, and home heating is one possible way of enabling the transformation from a fossil fuel-based society to a low-carbon socioeconomic epoch. Thermoelectric (TE) generators can convert heat to electrical energy thanks to high-performance TE materials that work via Seebeck effects when electricity appears between the cold part and the hot part of these materials. High figure of merit (ZT) TE material is characterized by high electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, together with low thermal conductivity. This article aims to summarize ZT values reported for chalcogenides, skutterudites, and metal oxides with graphene (G) or reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and intends to understand the relationship between the addition of G-rGO to composites and ZT variation. In a majority of the publications, ZT value increases with the addition of G/rGO, although the relative growth of ZT varies for different material families, as well as inside the same group of materials, with it often being related not to a G/rGO amount but with the quality of the composite.

2021 ◽  
Lijun Zhao ◽  
Mingyuan Wang ◽  
Jian Yang ◽  
Jiabin Hu ◽  
Yuan Zhu ◽  

Abstract Cu3SbSe4, featuring its earth-abundant, cheap, nontoxic and environmentally-friendly constituent elements, can be considered as a promising intermediate temperature thermoelectric (TE) material. Herein, a series of p-type Bi-doped Cu3Sb1 − xBixSe4 (x = 0-0.04) samples were fabricated through melting and hot pressing (HP) process, and the effects of isovalent Bi-doping on their TE properties were comparatively investigated by experimental and computational methods. TEM analysis indicates that Bi-doped samples consist of Cu3SbSe4 and Cu2 − xSe impurity phases, which is in good agreement with the results of XRD, SEM and XPS. For Bi-doped samples, the reduced electrical resistivity (ρ) caused by the optimized carrier concentrations and enhanced Seebeck coefficient derived from the densities of states near the Fermi level give rise to a high power factor of ~ 1000 µWcm− 1K− 2 at 673 K for the Cu3Sb0.985Bi0.015Se4 sample. Additionally, the multiscale defects of Cu3SbSe4-based materials involving point defects, nanoprecipitates, amorphous phases and grain boundaries can strongly scatter phonons to depress lattice thermal conductivity (κlat), resulting in a low κlat of ~ 0.53 Wm− 1K− 1 and thermal conductivity (κtot) of ~ 0.62 Wm− 1K− 1 at 673 K for the Cu3Sb0.98Bi0.02Se4 sample. As a consequence, a maximum ZT value ~ 0.95 at 673 K is obtained for the Cu3Sb0.985Bi0.015Se4 sample, which is ~ 1.9 times more than that of pristine Cu3SbSe4. This work shows that isovalent heavy-element doping is an effective strategy to optimize thermoelectric properties of copper-based chalcogenides.

2021 ◽  
Vol 143 (12) ◽  
Ding Luo ◽  
Ruochen Wang

Abstract When analyzing and optimizing the performance of thermoelectric (TE) devices in theory, Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity are indispensable TE properties. However, most manufacturers do not provide or overestimate these data. Under the consideration of temperature dependence, this paper discloses an experimental measurement approach to estimate the equivalent Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity of a TE module. A thermal resistance network is also established to work out the hot and cold side temperatures of TE legs. Based on a designed test bench, required temperature and electrical parameters in both open circuit and closed circuit are measured and recorded, where the data of open circuit are used to calculate the equivalent Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity, and the data of closed circuit are used to calculate the equivalent electrical resistivity. To eliminate the error of parasitic internal resistance, a thermal-electric finite element model is adopted to modify the equivalent electrical resistivity. The modification results indicate that the equivalent internal resistance is about 1.033 times the real internal resistance, and the ratio is related to the working temperature. This work provides a new idea to obtain the TE material properties via an experimental test.

2021 ◽  
pp. 37-39
Wajid Ali Shah ◽  
Sakshi Batra ◽  
Harsh Batra ◽  
C.P. Paul

Introduction: Deaths can be due to natural and unnatural causes. While the trend in natural deaths in an area reects the prevalent healthcare practices in an area, the pattern of unnatural deaths in an area conforms with the psychosocial, environmental and mental health. This was a retrospective study of autopsies conducted at a te Material And Methods: rtiary care hospital in Andaman and Nicobar islands over a period of 20 years from 1995-2015. The demographic data was collected from the institutional register. Record and analysis were done using MS Excel. Out of total of 3374 deaths, males Results: were 72.8% and females were 27.2%. Majority of deaths were in the productive age group of 20-39 years (46.5%). Cardiovascular deaths comprised maximum cases of natural deaths (59.8%). Hanging was the most common cause of unnatural death (25.1%) followed by RTA (17.4%). Amongst deaths due to RTA, male to female ratio was 2.5:1. However, deaths due to burns showed a higher predominance in females with female to male ratio of 6.4:1. Medicolegal Conclusion: proling of autopsy provides an important statistical measure to gauge the causes and patterns of untimely loss of human life. Analyzing these and taking imperative measures to curb the same helps in preserving human resources and contribute to country' s development.

2021 ◽  
pp. 2151005
Yongpeng Wang ◽  
Wenying Wang ◽  
Haoyu Zhao ◽  
Lin Bo ◽  
Lei Wang ◽  

In this study, the dense bulk Cu2Se thermoelectric (TE) materials were prepared by microwave melting and hot pressing sintering. The effects of different cooling processes on the microstructure and TE properties of Cu2Se were investigated. The results showed that the Cu2Se TE material prepared by microwave synthesis had high electrical conductivity, which was about 105 S⋅ m[Formula: see text]. The annealing process can lead to grain growth of Cu2Se and the formation of micropores in the Cu2Se, which deteriorated the thermal conductivity. The Cu2Se material prepared by the microwave melting and slow cooling process had the best TE performance, and the ZT value can reach 0.68 at 700 K.

Michael Y. Toriyama ◽  
Jiaxing Qu ◽  
G. Jeffrey Snyder ◽  
Prashun Gorai

While p-type BiCuSeO is a well-known mid-temperature oxide thermoelectric (TE) material, computations predict that superior TE performance can be realized through n-type doping. In this study, we use first-principles defect...

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