walking time
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (23) ◽  
pp. 11373
Souhail Hermassi ◽  
Lawrence D. Hayes ◽  
Nilihan E. M. Sanal-Hayes ◽  
René Schwesig

This experiment examined physical activity (PA), sitting time, and satisfaction with life (SL) in European (45%) and Middle Eastern and North African (MENA; 55%) handball players (n = 418; age: 25.6 ± 6.8 years; body mass: 88.1 ± 11.7 kg; height: 1.83 ± 0.08 m) during the coronavirus (COVID)-19 pandemic. The International Physical Activity (IPAQ) and Satisfaction of Life (LS) Questionnaires were administered. All PA variables (vigorous, moderate, walking, total PA) were negatively influenced, but no interaction effects (IE; region x time) were observed. Sitting time increased from 2.5 to 4.9 h∙weekday−1 (ηp2 = 0.80) and walking time decreased from 66.8 to 33.5 min∙day−1 (ηp2 = 0.83). Based on effect sizes (d), pre- to during-confinement reductions were similar between regions (MENA: d = 3.29; Europe: d = 3.41; IE: ηp2 = 0.01). The largest regional difference was in moderate PA (MENA: d = 1.88; Europe: d = 2.99; IE: ηp2 = 0.09). SL in the total sample reduced from 30.6 ± 2.02 to 13.9 ± 2.20 arbitrary units (AU). SL reduction was similar in both regions (dMENA = 8.44; dEUROPE = 8.06; IE: ηp2 = 0.01). To conclude, PA decreased during COVID-19 confinement, sitting time increased, and SL decreased irrespective of geographical region. These preliminary findings highlight risk of SL and physical inactivity during COVID-19 restrictions in 2021.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 189-201 ◽  
Robin Gutting ◽  
Maria Gerhold ◽  
Stefanie Rößler

Principles of social sustainability serve to guide urban regeneration programmes around the world. Increasingly, the upholding of these principles is subject to qualified evaluation and monitoring. One of the cornerstones of social sustainability is access to basic services. This is also a strategic and operational objective in urban regeneration measures. While indicator-based evaluations of accessibility do exist, hitherto they have tended to apply descriptive statistics or density parameters only. Therefore, there is a need for small-scale, regularly updated information on accessibility, such as the nearest facility based on street networks and population density. This deficit can often be attributed to the complex methodological requirements. To meet this need, our article presents a method for determining the spatial accessibility of basic services with low data requirements. Accessibility is measured in walking time and linked to the local population distribution. More specifically, GIS tools in connection with land survey data are used to estimate the number of inhabitants per building; the walking time needed to reach four types of social amenity along the street network is then determined for each building; finally, a population-weighted accessibility index is derived and mapped in a 50-m grid. To test this method, we investigated four urban regeneration areas in Dresden, Germany. The results show that with freely available geodata, it is possible to identify neighbourhoods and buildings with both high population densities and poor accessibility to basic services. Corresponding maps can be used to monitor urban regeneration measures or form a basis for further action.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 3219
James E. Sprinkle ◽  
Joseph K. Sagers ◽  
John B. Hall ◽  
Melinda J. Ellison ◽  
Joel V. Yelich ◽  

The objective was to determine if low- or high-residual feed intake (LRFI or HRFI, n = 24 for each) Hereford × Angus cows on continuously or rotationally grazed rangeland altered their grazing behavior when provided a protein supplement in late autumn. Treatments included continuously grazed, control (CCON, n = 12); continuously grazed, supplemented (CTRT, n = 12); rotationally grazed, control (RCON, n = 12); and rotationally grazed, supplemented pastures (RTRT, n = 12). Cows in each treatment had grazing time (GT), resting time (RT), and walking time (WLK) measured for 2 years with accelerometers. Bite rate (BR) was also measured. Time distributions of GT and RT differed by year (p < 0.05), being influenced by colder temperatures in 2016. Cattle in 2016 spent more time grazing during early morning and late evening (p < 0.05) and rested more during the day (p < 0.05). In 2017, cattle in the CCON treatment walked more (p < 0.05) during early morning time periods than did the CTRT cattle, indicative of search grazing. All supplemented cattle had greater BR (p < 0.05) than control cattle in 2017. Cattle with increased nutritional demands alter grazing behavior in a compensatory fashion when grazing late-season rangelands.

Anu Gupta ◽  
Kalpana Patni

Background: Amavata is the most common form of inflammatory arthopathy seen in India. Among adult population below the age of 50 years this is the most common form of arthritis. For the present study, on Amavata as shaman therapy, Khanda Shunthi and Prasarni Avleha the Ushnaveeryadravya medicaments were chosen. Aims & Objective: The present research work aimed at to evaluate efficacy and establish safe use of Khanda Shunthi and Prasarni Aavaleha in Amavata. Materials & Methods: 40 subjects of Amavata fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected from OPD and IPD of Desh Bhagat Ayurvedic Hospital, Mandi Gobindgarh, Punjab and randomly divided into two groups, group A and B, comprising each of 20 patients. Group-A subjects received Khanda Shunthi for 60 days, Group-B subjects received Prasarni Avaleha for 60 days. Assessments were done on 0th and 60th day of treatment. Results and Conclusions: In both the groups, highly significant results were observed in all the cardinal parameters with P value for fever and Hb are greater than 0.05 hence there is no significant difference in effect of Group A and Group B on fever and Hb. P values for all other symptoms are less than 0.05 hence we conclude that there is significant difference in effect of group A and group B on pain, swelling, stiffness, fever, ESR, walking time and grip strength. On comparison group A treatment is more effective than group B for all assessment criteria.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Yun-Juan Xie ◽  
Qing-Chuan Wei ◽  
Yi Chen ◽  
Ling-Yi Liao ◽  
Bao-Jin Li ◽  

Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the efficacy of cerebellar intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) on the walking function of stroke patients.Methods: Stroke patients with walking dysfunction aged 25–80 years who had suffered their first unilateral stroke were included. A total of 36 patients [mean (SD) age, 53 (7.93) years; 10 women (28%)] were enrolled in the study. All participants received the same conventional physical therapy, including transfer, balance, and ambulation training, during admission for 50 min per day during 2 weeks (10 sessions). Every session was preceded by 3 min procedure of cerebellar iTBS applyed over the contralesional cerebellum in the intervention group or by a similar sham iTBS in control group. The groups were formed randomly and the baseline characteristics showed no significant difference. The primary outcome measure was Fugl–Meyer Assessment–Lower Extremity scores. Secondary outcomes included walking performance and corticospinal excitability. Measures were performed before the intervention beginning (T0), after the first (T1) and the second (T2) weeks.Results: The Fugl–Meyer Assessment for lower extremity scores slightly improved with time in both groups with no significant difference between the groups and over the time. The walking performance significantly improved with time and between group. Two-way mixed measures ANOVA showed that there was significant interaction between time and group in comfortable walking time (F2,68 = 6.5242, P = 0.0080, η2partial = 0.276, ε = 0.641), between-group comparisons revealed significant differences at T1 (P = 0.0072) and T2 (P = 0.0133). The statistical analysis of maximum walking time showed that there was significant interaction between time and groups (F2,68 = 5.4354, P = 0.0115, η2partial = 0.198, ε = 0.734). Compared with T0, the differences of maximum walking time between the two groups at T1 (P = 0.0227) and T2 (P = 0.0127) were statistically significant. However, both the Timed up and go test and functional ambulation category scale did not yield significant differences between groups (P &gt; 0.05).Conclusion: Our results revealed that applying iTBS over the contralesional cerebellum paired with physical therapy could improve walking performance in patients after stroke, implying that cerebellar iTBS intervention may be a noninvasive strategy to promote walking function in these patients. This study was registered at ChiCTR, number ChiCTR1900026450.

2021 ◽  
Wenjing Zhao ◽  
Shigekazu Ukawa ◽  
Sachiko Sasaki ◽  
Emiko Okada ◽  
Tomoko Kishi ◽  

Abstract Background The evidence concerning longitudinal association between physical activity (PA) and frailty is scarce, and variation in the scales, tools, or modules of PA made it challenging to obtain consistent results. This association among the individules who reached an older age where age-related cumulative chronic diseases and physical function declines were common, was unclear. Our study aimed to demonstrate the association between PA and frailty incidence among Japanese community-dwelling older adults with narrow age range of 70–74 years. Mothods: About 485 participants aged 70–74 years from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study were included in this study. Frailty was assessed at baseline and 3 years later by using the Kaigo-Yobo Checklist. PA was assessed using the short-term International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was performed to calculate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Results After a 3-year follow-up, 46 new frailty cases were recorded. The association of frailty incidence with both PA volume and daily walking time presented a U-shaped curve, albeit statistically insignificant. After adjusting for potential confounders, walking for 0.5–1 h/d displayed a greater association with decreased frailty risk (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.12–0.98) than higher levels of daily walking time. No association between PA volume and subsequent frailty was observed. Conclusions Incorporating moderate regular walking levels of 0.5–1 h/d in older adults may delay the onset of frailty and improve the aging process. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of higher PA levels on frailty risk.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 1-6
Deeya Baboo ◽  
Prajwal Narayan ◽  
Ganesh Puttur

Ayurveda (Science of life) has explained about the pathogenesis and the treatment of various disorders, the incidence of some of which have increased in the present scenario due to altered diet habits and lifestyle. Janu Sandhigata Vata is one among the Vata Vyadhi which causes a lot of inconvenience and disability in day-to-day activities. It is compared to Osteoarthritis of knee in modern Science. In this case study, a female aged about 57 years presented in the OPD of SSCASRH, Bengaluru was diagnosed with Janu Sandhigata Vata of both the knee joints. Arohana Krama Matra Basti with Prasarini taila was planned as per Sharangadhara’s reference. There was significant improvement in the patient and was evaluated after treatment and also during follow up. There was marked relief with respect to her subjective complaints like pain, improved joint space, walking time, degree of flexion and extension & X ray. This type of Arohana Krama Matra Basti can be adopted in future for planning treatment in Janu Sandhigata Vata and also taken up in a larger group study to check for better relief, long term effect and reduced side effects. The case is further elaborated in the article

Zhifeng Yao ◽  
Fengxia Xu ◽  
Chunsong Han

Exploration algorithms based on the Boustrophedon path seldom consider the impacts of a robot turning at corners on the exploration time. This paper proposes the Forecast-Island and Bidding A*-Euclidean Selecting Boustrophedon Coordination (FIBA*ESBC) algorithm to calculate the turning time at corners in the overall exploration time and introduces a method to estimate the walking time in the Boustrophedon paths in order to determine the directions for path execution. Typically, in bidding-based exploration tasks, the cost is the Euclidean distance between the current position of the robot and the target point. When there is an obstacle between two points, the cost is set to infinity. Therefore, the selected target point is sometimes not optimal. The FIBA*ESBC algorithm is based on the exploration cost of a combination of the Euclidean distance and A* algorithm walking path, which can effectively solve this problem. Because the bidding is based on a greedy algorithm, the robot has a small unexplored island in the later exploration stage; therefore, full exploration is not possible or requires a long time with several repeated paths. The FIBA*ESBC algorithm prioritizes the exploration and estimation of hidden and existing unexplored islands. It can realize complete exploration and decrease the exploration time. Through simulation experiments conducted using Gazebo and RViz, the feasibility of the FIBA*ESBC algorithm is verified. Moreover, a simulation experiment is conducted in MATLAB for comparison with other algorithms. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the proposed algorithm has a relatively short exploration time.

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