Improving the safety of hospital complexes in modern conditions

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 412
Author(s):  
Vaulin Vladimir Ivanovich ◽  
Singeev Sergey Aleksandrovich

Background: The article presents the results of a study of ensuring fire safety in medical and preventive institutions (LPI) on the example of the central city hospital.Objectives: Research is aimed at improving the fire safety of hospital complexes and hospitals in modern conditions.Materials and Methods: The study used the methods of system analysis of scientific research and statistical data on ensuring fire safety, methods of structural analysis of the practice of ensuring fire safety of hospital complexes, mathematical methods for calculating the evacuation of people from a building and the spread of a fire in a building, methods for calculating the economic efficiency of means of support fire safety.Results and Discussion: Based on the analysis of fire statistics in healthcare facilities in Russia, it is concluded that it is advisable to improve the fire safety of hospitals and hospital complexes in modern conditions. The point of view is expressed that along with the fact that fire safety in hospitals is observed, the analysis indicates the existing problems in the practice of implementation.Conclusion: In order to increase the level of fire safety, it is possible to introduce: a modern fire alarm system; video of control systems and monitoring of safety of objects on the territory of the medical facility; installation of automatic fire extinguishing systems in fire-hazardous premises; installation of additional emergency lighting and reflectors indicating the direction of evacuation in case of fire and smoke; carrying out organizational and practical measures to ensure the safety of patients in a medical institution in an emergency situation (ES), namely, it is proposed to develop a memo of actions for patients in the hospital complex on inpatient treatment in case of an emergency with a list in the instruction log; provision of medical facilities with individual rescue equipment and provision of hospitals and hospital complexes with highrise buildings with modern evacuation means.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 412-417

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (2) ◽  
pp. 73-79
Author(s):  
Youngsam Lee ◽  
Sooho Baek

According to fire statistics analysis of the nation's fire department between 2015–2019, the most common cause of fire was electrical fire. As reported, 47,135 fires were caused by electricity, 22,852 were caused by mechanical causes, and 871 were caused by gas leakages. In this study, the fire adaptability of microcapsulated fire extinguishing agents was tested against small space electrical fires, such as electrical distribution boards. The tests showed that the fire extinguishing agent inside the capsule was released after initial fire contact and the fire of n-heptane was extinguished within 4.48 seconds (on average). Therefore, the KFI small space B-level fire extinguishing test by the Korea Institute of Fire and Industry met the criteria that the fire was extinguished and did not reoccur within 90 s after the end of the preliminary combustion. In addition, this fire extinguisher (agent) dramatically improved the volume of existing cylinder-type fire extinguishers for small spaces. However, there are no national fire safety codes (NFSCs) for this agent. Therefore, it is necessary to enact fire safety standards for this agent for smooth-field applications.


1976 ◽  
Vol 8 (03) ◽  
pp. 548-583 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lajos Takács

This paper gives a survey of the historical development of the solutions of various fluctuation problems in the theory of queues from the point of view of the mathematical methods used. These methods include Markov chains, Markov processes, integral equations, complex functions, generating functions, Laplace transforms, factorization of functions, operator calculus, Banach algebras and some particular methods, such as calculus of finite differences and combinatorics. In addition, the paper contains several recent results of the author for semi-Markov queuing processes.


2020 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrew Ebekozien ◽  
Clinton Aigbavboa ◽  
Solomon Oisasoje Ayo-Odifiri ◽  
Nuzaihan Aras Agus Salim

PurposeThe occurrence of fire accidents in hospital buildings has become a serious challenge and more serious in developing nations. The purpose of this paper intends to assess fire safety measures in Nigerian hospital facilities. The significance of this study is to ensure that the design and construction of hospital facilities enhance the safety of users and properties.Design/methodology/approachThe data were collected via a case study and questionnaire survey and administered to the facility users. The study survey is to assess the respondents' perception of fire safety measures in hospital facilities and suggest possible policy measures that will be employed to enhance safety.FindingsThis paper found that 91% of the respondents have awareness of fire safety measures in hospital facilities. Electrical faults and combustible materials were identified as the frequent causes of fire occurrences in hospital facilities. This can be averted where flammable materials and electrical appliances are correctly installed, and safety rules enforced. Findings show that safety rules are lax in public than standard private hospitals.Research limitations/implicationsThis paper is limited to fire safety measures in Nigerian healthcare facilities. Future research is needed to evaluate the level of compliance from design, construction and post-construction of precautionary fire safety measures in hospital facilities in Nigeria.Practical implicationsThis paper recommended that designers and hospital administrators should improve on fire safety measures via the development of fire safety management plan and education. Thus, enforcement of fire safety measures in hospital facilities as specified in building codes should be implemented and monitored during and after the design of the hospital buildings. Findings provide valuable lessons on how to improve the fire safety measures in healthcare facilities across the states and other developing countries with similar healthcare situations.Originality/valueThis paper demonstrates that the stakeholders, especially government agencies concern with approval and enforcement of fire safety measures in healthcare facilities need to reawaken to her responsibility because of the lax implementation across the states.


2020 ◽  
Vol 38 (4) ◽  
pp. 497-511 ◽  
Author(s):  
Naziah Muhamad Salleh ◽  
Nuzaihan Aras Agus Salim ◽  
Mastura Jaafar ◽  
Mohd Zailan Sulieman ◽  
Andrew Ebekozien

PurposeThere is increasing recognition amongst healthcare providers on the necessity to improve fire safety management in healthcare facilities. This is possibly not yet satisfactory because of recent fire incidents in Asia. This paper set out to analyse the literature because of the paucity of systematic reviews on fire safety management of public healthcare facilities and proffer preventive measures.Design/methodology/approachThirty related studies were identified with the support of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses via Scopus and Web of Science databases.FindingsInfluencing factors, hindrances to fire safety management and preventive measures for fire-related occurrence in Asian hospital buildings were the three themes that emerged from the reviewed. The factors that influence fire in Asian hospital buildings were categorised into technical, management and legislation factors.Research limitations/implicationsThe recommendations of this paper were based on literature that was systematically reviewed but does not compromise the robustness concerning fire safety management in hospital buildings across Asian countries. Much is needed to be known regarding fire safety in healthcare buildings across Asian countries. This paper recommended exploratory sequential mixed-methods approach as part of the implications for further studies. This will allow in-depth face-to-face interviews and increase the generalisability of future findings concerning fire safety management in hospital buildings across Asian countries to a larger population.Practical implicationsAs part of the practical implications, this paper recommends fire safety management plan as one of the practical possible measures for addressing technical, management and legislation factors. Also recommended is training and fire safety education of healthcare staff in collaboration with safety firefighters to address major issues that may arise from management factors. The government should upgrade the safety technology equipment in healthcare facilities as part of measures to mitigate issues concerning technical and legislation factors. Also, the identified factors are part of the theoretical contributions to the advancement of knowledge and this brings to the front burners new opening.Originality/valueThis is probably the first systematic review paper on fire safety hospital buildings in Asia.


Author(s):  
Antonio Bilotta ◽  
Donatella De Silva ◽  
Emidio Nigro

The fire safety of the existing structures is very important from the socio-economic point of view and has high social impact for civil, industrial, and commercial buildings. The verification of the minimum fire resistance of civil structures is done through some regulations, drafted to ensure occupant and rescue teams safety as well as a limited structural damage. These national fire rules are not always easily applicable to existing buildings. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance about the structural analysis of existing buildings exposed to fire, with particular reference to steel buildings protected with intumescent coatings.


2013 ◽  
Vol 842 ◽  
pp. 725-728 ◽  
Author(s):  
Petr Kučera ◽  
Antonín Lokaj ◽  
Vladimír Vlček

In the presented paper is comprehensively assessed the behavior of spruce and birch wood during fire. Samples were loaded by heat flux of 20, 35 and 50 kW/m2in apparatus according to ISO 5657. The duration of the test was up to 30 min. The behavior of the samples was evaluated on the basis of charring rate and concentrations of carbon monoxide in smoke. Charring rate was rising with increasing heat flux density and decreasing linearly with increasing density of the samples. The maximum concentration of CO in the smoke for spruce and birch wood was observed just before the end of the test, during the phase of char layer burning.


2015 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 199-209
Author(s):  
Paul Clavier ◽  
Jacopo Domenicucci

Kant’s Refutation of Idealism has often been assessed either from a realistic or from a transcendental point of view. Each of them proves to be unsufficient. The realistic approach wouldn’t it enough the tenets of the Transcendental Esthetics, and the transcendental approach doesn’t allow us to go beyond our representations. We put forward a logical and structural analysis of the famous paragraph from the System of all principles and its rewriting in the Preface to the Second edition of the first Critique. Additional evidence from the Opus Postumum leads us to suggest that Kant more or less willingly endorses an equivocation on the phrase “existing outside me”, which wonderfully serves his double purpose of saving the transcendental deduction and facing the so-called “scandal of idealism.”


Fire Safety ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 36 ◽  
pp. 5-9
Author(s):  
V. Balanyuk ◽  
M. Kozyar ◽  
A. Kravchenko

Introduction. Now the number of enterprises and technological processes where alcohols and alcohol-containing liquids are used is constantly increasing. Due to the content of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the molecule, alcohols have increased flammable properties, namely: high combustion temperature, low lower concentration limit of flame propagation, high evapo-ration rate due to low boiling point and significant explosion pressure. Thus, in order to increase the fire safety of alcohol enterprises, is relevant the search for fire extinguishers that would provide both surface extinguishing and volumetric phlegma-tization of alcohol-air mixtures .The purpose and objectives of the study. The aim of the work is to determine the fire extinguishing factors and the efficiency of sublayer extinguishing by binary mixtures of fire extinguishing aerosol and CO2.Research objectives To establish fire-extinguishing factors of sublayer extinguishing of alcohols by binary mixtures of fire-extinguishing aerosol and CO2. To determine the fire-extinguishing efficiency of sublayer extinguishing of alcohols by binary mixtures of fire-extinguishing aero-sol and CO2.Methods. In the work according to the developed method with the use of metrologically certified equipment and certified measuring instruments, the fire-extinguishing minimum volume concentration of the components of the binary gas-aerosol mixture on the developed installation was determined.6 Пожежна безпека, №36, 2020Results. It was found that the maximum fire-extinguishing intensity of the aerosol formed from aerosol based compound based on sucrose (33%), potassium nitrate KNO3 (67%), is about 6 g / s in the experimental setup. The fire-extinguishing inten-sities of aerosol supply and its binary mixture with CO2 have been experimentally established. It was found that the addition of CO2 to the aerosol reduces the time of emergence of gas aerosol bubbles and quenching to 1.5 times. It was found that the size of the bubbles when adding CO2 is 10 -35% larger than when using CO2 itself.Conclusions. The results of the research showed that binary gas-aerosol mixtures have high fire-extinguishing efficiency with their sublayer supply for extinguishing alcohols and are several times more efficient, cheaper and have several times longer service life compared to traditional fire extinguishers.


Fire Safety ◽  
2019 ◽  
pp. 54-58
Author(s):  
O. V. Lazarenko ◽  
O. D. Synelnikov ◽  
I. M. Bykov ◽  
A. S. Kuskovets

The development of modern technologies simultaneously with the improvement of the conditions of human existence creates additional risks that had been solved to ensure the safety and comfortable conditions of people's stay. One of these areas of human development is the gradual transition to alternative energy sources and modes of transport, including electric vehicles. Modern versions of electric vehicles, by their tactical and technical characteristics, practically do not concede cars with engines of internal combustion, but the research shows that from the point of view of fire safety and tactics of firefighting, the batteries of electric cars require some other approaches and algorithms for carrying out of emergency rescue works. Considering the modern experience and experimental results of research on the tactics of firefighting of electric vehicles, it turned out that the normative intensity of water supply (aqueous solutions) should be increased and make not less than 1,2 l/(c·m2). An increase in the normative intensity of water supply requires the fire-extinguishing chief to ensure in advance the uninterrupted supply of the extinguishing agent to the fire brigade, necessarily installing a tanker truck on a fire hydrant or reservoir. The specificity of the extinguishing of electric cars also shows the ineffectiveness of the use of a fire-extinguishing agent of air-mechanical foam and the necessity of compulsory dismantling of the battery pack of an electric vehicle after the elimination of the fire. The main results of the work are summarized in the general list of the algorithm of actions of the fireextinguishing chief after his arrival at the place of the emergency related to the ignition of electric vehicles. Compliance by the fire-extinguishing chief of the given algorithm of action will minimize the risks for the personnel of the rescue unit and accelerate the elimination of the fire. Accordingly, to the analysis and scientific results, the future directions of scientific research should be aimed: at improving the algorithm of action and tactics of elimination the fire of electric cars, the development of technical devices for extinguishing the battery of electric cars, the development of automatic fire extinguishing of electric cars, the development of more effective fire extinguishing means for extinguishing the rechargeable battery of electric cars.


2014 ◽  
Vol 1057 ◽  
pp. 204-211
Author(s):  
Róbert Leško ◽  
Martin Lopušniak

Fire safety, as one of six basic requirements for structures in Slovakia, does not reflect the increase of innovative solutions during last years in the field of building industry. At the present time, energy economy of structures sets the character of structures forming the heat exchange envelope of the building. Continuous demand for the application of ecological materials increases requirements for optimizing the existing or creating new procedures in the solution of fire safety of structures. The existing classification of building structures appears, from the point of view of fire safety, as insufficient one. Comparative analysis of different structural compositions of external cladding is the method that demonstrates in this paper unsuitability of criteria set. The development of new procedures can make more effective and can optimize requirements without any negative impacts on resulting fire safety of the structure.


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