Total Lipid Content
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Onkar Singh Brraich ◽  
Navpreet Kaur ◽  
Swarndeep Singh Hundal

Fish production and fish processing waste have straight connection.  In India, the waste produced during the processing of fish is predicted to be approximate 3.6 million metric tonnes, 48 per cent of the total body weight of Indian and exotic major carps is thrown away as waste (non-edible ). The present research, it was conducted to compare the total lipid content (TLC) and fatty acid composition from the liver of captured and cultured fish, Labeo rohita  (Hamilton) having weight more than 500 gram during different months as well as to evaluate its nutritional quality. Maximum total lipid content (33.33±0.14%) was found in the liver of cultured fish in May month, while the minimum (15.26±0.24%) was in the liver of captured fish in the month of January. During the study, total lipid content was found to be considerably elevated in cultured than captured Fish, Labeo rohita  (Hamilton). The amount of three major groups of fatty acids namely polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids was found to be maximum in captured fish during the month of March 97.19±0.96%, 61.30±0.56% and 95.39±0.31% month of April respectively. Total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed to be highest (21.95±8.05%) in the waste of liver in cultured fish during the month of March. Hence, it is concluded that the processing waste (liver) of the captured and cultured, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) is a prosperous resource of the essential fatty acids i.e.  PUFAs and total lipids. Further, it is observed that captured species are rich in fatty acid composition as compared to cultured species. Food industries can manufacture by-products from these high nutritional value contents of   waste for human utilization. EPA and DHA also reduce the risk of various life threatening diseases.

Zahra Zarei Jeliani ◽  
Nasrin Fazelian ◽  
Morteza Yousefzadi

Abstract The aim of this work was to describe and compare the main fatty acids and biodiesel indices of some green and brown macroalgae (seaweeds) collected from the Persian Gulf, as an alternative raw material for renewable biodiesel production. The macroalgae showed low lipid content (< 10% DW) but marine macroalgae with total lipid content > 5% DW are a good source for biodiesel production. The total lipid content and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) of green algae were higher than that of brown algae, while higher accumulation of unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs) was observed in brown seaweeds. Further, the main fatty acid in all studied seaweeds was palmitic acid (C16:0), which was followed by oleic acid (C18:1). The results of this work showed that three of the green algae, especially C. sertularioides, could be a potential source of fatty acids for biodiesel production owing to their high total lipid content, high cold flow indices (long chain saturated factor, cold filter plugging point and cloud point) and a fatty acid profile rich in SFAs with a high amount of C18:1, which is suitable for oil-based bio products. In contrast, the brown seaweeds Sargassum boveanum and Sirophysalis trinodis lipid content had a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which makes them suitable for replacing fish oil.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Malachy T. Campbell ◽  
Haixiao Hu ◽  
Trevor H. Yeats ◽  
Lauren J. Brzozowski ◽  
Melanie Caffe-Treml ◽  

The observable phenotype is the manifestation of information that is passed along different organization levels (transcriptional, translational, and metabolic) of a biological system. The widespread use of various omic technologies (RNA-sequencing, metabolomics, etc.) has provided plant genetics and breeders with a wealth of information on pertinent intermediate molecular processes that may help explain variation in conventional traits such as yield, seed quality, and fitness, among others. A major challenge is effectively using these data to help predict the genetic merit of new, unobserved individuals for conventional agronomic traits. Trait-specific genomic relationship matrices (TGRMs) model the relationships between individuals using genome-wide markers (SNPs) and place greater emphasis on markers that most relevant to the trait compared to conventional genomic relationship matrices. Given that these approaches define relationships based on putative causal loci, it is expected that these approaches should improve predictions for related traits. In this study we evaluated the use of TGRMs to accommodate information on intermediate molecular phenotypes (referred to as endophenotypes) and to predict an agronomic trait, total lipid content, in oat seed. Nine fatty acids were quantified in a panel of 336 oat lines. Marker effects were estimated for each endophenotype, and were used to construct TGRMs. A multikernel TRGM model (MK-TRGM-BLUP) was used to predict total seed lipid content in an independent panel of 210 oat lines. The MK-TRGM-BLUP approach significantly improved predictions for total lipid content when compared to a conventional genomic BLUP (gBLUP) approach. Given that the MK-TGRM-BLUP approach leverages information on the nine fatty acids to predict genetic values for total lipid content in unobserved individuals, we compared the MK-TGRM-BLUP approach to a multi-trait gBLUP (MT-gBLUP) approach that jointly fits phenotypes for fatty acids and total lipid content. The MK-TGRM-BLUP approach significantly outperformed MT-gBLUP. Collectively, these results highlight the utility of using TGRM to accommodate information on endophenotypes and improve genomic prediction for a conventional agronomic trait.

Crustaceana ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 94 (3) ◽  
pp. 309-324
Dongdong Zhang ◽  
Xiaodong Jiang ◽  
Lu Zu ◽  
Wenquan Zhou ◽  
Min Luo ◽  

Abstract There are three major wild populations of mitten crab (Eriocheir sensu stricto), Suifenhe River (SF), Tumenjiang River (TM) and Liaohe River (LH) in northern China. However, the information on the nutritional quality of these three populations of crabs is still scarce. Thus, we investigated and compared the tissue indices, total edible yield, proximate composition, fatty acid compositions and amino acid contents of these wild crab populations. We showed that: (1) TM population had the highest meat yield among the three populations; (2) TM recorded the highest moisture and the lowest total lipid content in ovary and muscle; (3) a higher level of total n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids was found in TM, except for the ovary in SF; (4) the three populations had similar essential amino acids scores. In conclusion, Eriocheir s.s. from these three populations all showed a high nutritional quality suitable for humans, especially the TM, which contains more eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (5) ◽  
pp. 771
Anita Jemec Kokalj ◽  
Andraž Dolar ◽  
Jelizaveta Titova ◽  
Meeri Visnapuu ◽  
Luka Škrlep ◽  

The effects of microplastics (MP) are extensively studied, yet hazard data from long-term exposure studies are scarce. Moreover, for sustainable circular use in the future, knowledge on the biological impact of recycled plastics is essential. The aim of this study was to provide long-term toxicity data of virgin vs recycled (mechanical recycling) low density polyethylene (LDPE) for two commonly used ecotoxicity models, the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna and the terrestrial crustacean Porcellio scaber. LDPE MP was tested as fragments of 39.8 ± 8.82 µm (virgin) and 205 ± 144 µm (recycled) at chronic exposure levels of 1–100 mg LDPE/L (D. magna) and 0.2–15 g LDPE/kg soil (P. scaber). Mortality, reproduction, body length, total lipid content, feeding and immune response were evaluated. With the exception of very low inconsistent offspring mortality at 10 mg/L and 100 mg/L of recycled LDPE, no MP exposure-related adverse effects were recorded for D. magna. For P. scaber, increased feeding on non-contaminated leaves was observed for virgin LDPE at 5 g/kg and 15 g/kg. In addition, both LDPE induced a slight immune response at 5 g/kg and 15 g/kg with more parameters altered for virgin LDPE. Our results indicated different sublethal responses upon exposure to recycled compared to virgin LDPE MP.

Maria Rosa di Cicco ◽  
Maria Palmieri ◽  
Simona Altieri ◽  
Claudia Ciniglia ◽  
Carmine Lubritto

Algal based wastewater treatment offers the opportunity to recover, in the form of biomass, the nutrients and internal chemical energy of wastewater. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of extremophilic microalgae, as they can easily adapt to difficult and often pollutant-rich environments. The thermo-acidophilic microalga Galdieria phlegrea is a species of recent discovery and great metabolic versatility, but it has still been poorly studied. Here, G. phlegrea was cultivated using raw municipal wastewater in 1 L Erlenmeyer flasks with 700 mL working volume at 37 °C for up to nine days. During the cultivation phase, biomass growth, phycocyanin content, ammonium and phosphate removal from the wastewater, lipid fraction, total carbon and nitrogen in the biomass, and variation in δ13C and δ15N isotopic ratios (a novel analytical contribution in these experiments) were monitored. Results indicated that G. phlegrea was able to grow in raw effluent, where it removed more than 50% ammonium and 20% phosphate in 24 h; total lipid content was in the range of 11–22%, while average C-N content was of 45% and 6%, respectively; isotopic analyses proved to be a useful support in identifying C and N metabolic pathways from effluent to biomass. Overall, G. phlegrea showed consistent performance with similar Cyanidiophyceae and is a potentially viable candidate for municipal wastewater valorization from a circular economy perspective.

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