Pathogenic Leptospira
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2021 ◽  
Vol 33 (6) ◽  
pp. 1137-1141
Risako Yamashita ◽  
Toshinori Yoshida ◽  
Mio Kobayashi ◽  
Suzuka Uomoto ◽  
Saori Shimizu ◽  

Neuroleptospirosis is a rare disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira interrogans in humans; however, it has not been fully studied in animals. A young wild raccoon dog was found convulsing in the recumbent position and died the next day. Histologic examination revealed nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis in the cerebrum, cerebellum, midbrain, and medulla oblongata. The lesions consisted of mixed infiltrates of Iba1-positive macrophages and CD3-positive T cells, with a small number of CD79α-positive B cells and myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils. In the frontal cortex, perivascular cuffs and adjacent microglial nodules were distributed diffusely, especially in the molecular layer. Glial nodules were comprised of Iba1- and myeloperoxidase-positive activated microglia. Immunohistochemistry revealed leptospires in mononuclear cell perivascular cuffs, but not in glial nodules. Neuroleptospirosis was accompanied by Leptospira-related nonsuppurative interstitial nephritis, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, and coronary periarteritis, as well as Toxocara tanuki in the small intestine and nonspecific foreign-body granulomas in the lungs and stomach.

K. Justin Davis ◽  
K. Justin Davis ◽  
K. Justin Davis ◽  
K. Justin Davis ◽  
K. Justin Davis

Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic disease endemic in Kerala and close monitoring of emerging serovars is essential to adopt appropriate control strategies. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) was reported to be less expensive compared to other cumbersome methods like whole genome sequencing. The present study was conducted to obtain isolates of Leptospira from infected animals and rats and for the identification of serovars using MLST. A total of 205 blood samples (dog, cat, cattle, goat), 43 urine samples (dog, cattle) and post-mortem kidney samples from various animals such as dog (n=12), cattle (n=2) and rat (n=25) were collected and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using G1/G2 primers to identify the pathogenic Leptospira. Fifteen samples were found to be positive, these samples when inoculated in the Ellinghausen- McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH) semi-solid medium to obtain ten isolates. These ten isolates were further subjected to secY, icdA and GyraseB PCR and sequenced. The obtained sequences were analysed using BLAST and were fed into specified MLST database of Leptospira scheme-3, the allelic profile and sequence type were generated. The MLST results obtained in the study indicated that the isolates S24 and S33 belonged to serovar Canicola, S40 and 47 were Sejroe and S19, S27, S55, S69 and S71 were Bataviae, Autumnalis, Pomona, Icterohaemorraghiae and Australis, respectively. It was concluded that MLST is a convenient method for identifying leptospiral serovars.

2021 ◽  
Vol 77 (3) ◽  
pp. 99-107
Olexandr Hulai ◽  
Vitalii Hulai ◽  
Nataliia Tkachuk

Leptospira interrogans spirochetes belong to a group of pathogens of particularly dangerous infections that cause leptospirosis in many species of wild, farm and domestic animals, as well as humans. Significant economic damage caused by this disease to livestock around the world, numerous cases of death from leptospirosis, and mainly waterborne transmission of the infection determine the topicality of studying all the aspects of the existence of L. interrogans in freshwater ecosystems. The objective of our study was to determine the nature of ecological relationships between L. interrogans and green algae. We used green algae of the Desmodesmus brasiliensis species as a model object. In the experiments, sterile algae culture filtrates were added to L. interrogans containers grown at 27–28 °C. Comparison of the content of spirochete cells in the experiment and control samples, conducted 24 hours after exposure, showed that the reproduction of L. interrogans is markedly inhibited in the samples containing algae secretions at the dilutions of 1:10 and 1:100. In order to reduce resistance to the allelopathic influence of D. brasiliensis algae, leptospira strains were located as follows: Pomona, Australis, Hebdomadis, Canicola, Sejroe, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, Tarassovi. The obtained results indicate a complex intraspecific structure of L. interrogans and their high ecological plasticity. In addition, experimental data indicate that, due to the release of biologically active substances into the aquatic environment, green algae have the potential to affect the dynamics of a number of leptospirosis pathogens in situ. Given the important epidemiological and epizootic significance of pathogenic leptospira, further research is necessary to determine the patterns of their interactions and existence in the environment.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257971
David A. Wilkinson ◽  
Matthew Edwards ◽  
Jackie Benschop ◽  
Shahista Nisa

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance. The breadth of Leptospira diversity associated with both human and animal disease poses major logistical challenges to the use of classical diagnostic techniques, and increasingly molecular diagnostic tools are used for their detection. In New Zealand, this has resulted in an increase in positive cases reported nationally that have not been attributed to the infecting serovar or genomospecies. In this study, we used data from all pathogenic Leptospira genomes to identify a partial region of the glmU gene as a suitable locus for the discrimination of the infecting species and serovars of New Zealand-endemic Leptospira. This method can be used in culture and culture-independent scenarios making it flexible for diagnostics in humans, animals, and environmental samples. We explored the use of this locus as a molecular barcoding tool via the Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) sequencing platform MinION. Sequences obtained by this method allowed specific identification of Leptospira species in mixed and enriched environmental cultures, however read error inherent in the MinION sequencing system reduced the accuracy of strain/variant identification. Using this approach to characterise Leptospira in enriched environmental cultures, we detected the likely presence of Leptospira genomospecies that have not been reported in New Zealand to date. This included a strain of L. borgpetersenii that has recently been identified in dairy cattle and sequences similar to those of L. mayottensis. L. tipperaryensis, L. dzianensis and L. alstonii.

Jo Ann Wong

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the pathogenic Leptospira interrogans. Humans acquire the infection either through direct contact with the urine of infected animals, commonly rats or indirect contact of contaminated water or soil. It is a rare cause of acute hepatitis in the UK with fewer than 100 reported cases a year and hence diagnosis is commonly delayed. A 51-year-old fit Caucasian gentleman was admitted with a one-week history of painless jaundice, dark urine and pale-coloured stools. This was associated with feeling unwell, anorexia, nausea and intermittent epigastric discomfort. He binges on alcohol on a weekend. He works as a telephone engineer which occasionally exposes him to sewage water. On clinical examination, he was icteric with mild right hypochondriac tenderness. Liver biopsy was performed and histologically it was suggestive of leptospirosis. He was started on a five-day course of intravenous ceftriaxone followed by two days course of oral doxycycline. His IgM leptospirosis result finally came back as positive. Due to the rarity of leptospirosis in the UK, the serological testing of leptospirosis is only performed in the Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory in Porton Down, Salisbury leading to a delay in getting the result. The patient underwent an invasive procedure which can be avoided if the leptospirosis serology was ordered early and result available quickly. Fortunately, the patient made a full recovery after two months. Leptospirosis should be considered in an individual with acute hepatitis and a history of exposure to sewage.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue-2: 2021 Page: S22

2021 ◽  
Yann Gomard ◽  
Koussay Mohamed Dellagi ◽  
Steven Goodman ◽  
Patrick Mavingui ◽  
Pablo Tortosa

Leptospirosis, caused by a pathogenic Leptospira bacteria, is the most prevalent zoonosis worldwide and in this context has been extensively investigated through a One Health framework. Diagnosis of human leptospirosis includes molecular and serological tools, with serological Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) still being considered as a gold standard. Mammals considered as biological reservoirs include species or populations that are able to maintain chronic infection and shed the bacteria via their urine in the environment. Leptospira bacteria are often investigated using the same diagnosis tool, serological MAT. However, MAT testing of putative animal reservoirs can lead to mis-interpretations as it can signal previous infection and not necessarily bring in robust information regarding the capacity of such sero-positive animals to maintain chronic infection. We use previously published data and present new results on introduced and endemic small mammals to show that MAT should not be used for the identification of reservoirs. By contrast, serological data are informative on the level of exposure of animals occupying a specific environment. Finally, we present a sequential methodology to investigate human leptospirosis in a One Health framework that associates molecular detection in humans and animals, together with MAT of human samples using Leptospira isolates obtained from reservoir animals occurring in the same environment.

Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 933
Elisabeth Schmidt ◽  
Anna Obiegala ◽  
Christian Imholt ◽  
Stephan Drewes ◽  
Marion Saathoff ◽  

Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease with more than 1 million human cases annually. Infections are associated with direct contact to infected animals or indirect contact to contaminated water or soil. As not much is known about the prevalence and host specificity of Leptospira spp. in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), our study aimed to evaluate Leptospira spp. prevalence and genomospecies distribution as well as the influence of season, host abundance and individual characteristics on the Leptospira prevalence. Bank voles, which are abundant and widely distributed in forest habitats, were collected in the years 2018 to 2020 in North-West Germany, covering parts of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. The DNA of 1817 kidney samples was analyzed by real-time PCR targeting the lipl32 gene. Positive samples were further analyzed by targeting the secY gene to determine Leptospira genomospecies and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the sequence type (ST). The overall prevalence was 7.5% (95% confidence interval: 6.4–8.9). Leptospira interrogans (83.3%), L. kirschneri (11.5%) and L. borgpetersenii (5.2%) were detected in bank voles. Increasing body weight as a proxy for age increased the individual infection probability. Only in years with high bank vole abundance was this probability significantly higher in males than in females. Even if case numbers of human leptospirosis in Germany are low, our study shows that pathogenic Leptospira spp. are present and thus a persisting potential source for human infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 1915
Kerstin Ackermann ◽  
Rebecca Kenngott ◽  
Monica Settles ◽  
Hartmut Gerhards ◽  
Johann Maierl ◽  

Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) causes painful inflammatory attacks and oftentimes blindness in the affected eyes. The disease is considered a late sequela of systemic leptospirosis. The most effective therapy is the surgical removal of the vitreous (vitrectomy), which is not only therapeutic, but provides vitreous material that can be assessed diagnostically. For example, the lipL32 gene, culturable Leptospira spp., and anti-Leptospira antibodies have all been detected in vitreous samples obtained from eyes with chronic ERU. Despite this clear evidence of leptospiral involvement, the systemic administration of antibiotics in infected horses is ineffective at resolving ERU. This syndrome of chronic recurrent inflammation, which is unresponsive to antibiotic therapy, combined with apparent bacteria evading the immune response, is consistent with a biofilm-associated infection. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to detect the in vivo biofilm formation of Leptospira spp. in vitreous samples collected during vitrectomy and examined using a Warthin-Starry silver stain and immunohistochemistry. All known steps of biofilm formation were visualized in these samples, including individual Leptospira spp., leptospiral microcolonies and dense roundish accumulations of Leptospira spp. In many instances spirochetes were surrounded by an extracellular substance. Taken together, data from the present study show that ERU is a biofilm-associated intraocular leptospiral infection, which best explains the typical clinical course.

Asmalia Md-Lasim ◽  
Farah Shafawati Mohd-Taib ◽  
Mardani Abdul-Halim ◽  
Ahmad Mohiddin Mohd-Ngesom ◽  
Sheila Nathan ◽  

Pathogenic Leptospira is the causative agent of leptospirosis, an emerging zoonotic disease affecting animals and humans worldwide. The risk of host infection following interaction with environmental sources depends on the ability of Leptospira to persist, survive, and infect the new host to continue the transmission chain. Leptospira may coexist with other pathogens, thus providing a suitable condition for the development of other pathogens, resulting in multi-pathogen infection in humans. Therefore, it is important to better understand the dynamics of transmission by these pathogens. We conducted Boolean searches of several databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, SciELO, and ScienceDirect, to identify relevant published data on Leptospira and coinfection with other pathogenic bacteria. We review the role of the host-microbiota in determining the synanthropic interaction of Leptospira sp. with other bacteria, thus creating a suitable condition for the leptospira to survive and persist successfully. We also discuss the biotic and abiotic factors that amplify the viability of Leptospira in the environment. The coinfection of leptospira with pathogenic bacteria has rarely been reported, potentially contributing to a lack of awareness. Therefore, the occurrence of leptospirosis coinfection may complicate diagnosis, long-lasting examination, and mistreatment that could lead to mortality. Identifying the presence of leptospirosis with other bacteria through metagenomic analysis could reveal possible coinfection. In conclusion, the occurrence of leptospirosis with other diseases should be of concern and may depend on the success of the transmission and severity of individual infections. Medical practitioners may misdiagnose the presence of multiple infections and should be made aware of and receive adequate training on appropriate treatment for leptospirosis patients. Physicians could undertake a more targeted approach for leptospirosis diagnosis by considering other symptoms caused by the coinfected bacteria; thus, more specific treatment could be given.

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