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Anne van Dam ◽  
Margot Metz ◽  
Bert Meijboom

A standardised system of clinical pathways often conflicts with providing patient-centred heterogeneous care. Mental health care organisations are searching for new methods to become responsive towards unique treatment needs. Modularity is a method increasingly suggested to reconcile standardisation and customisation. The aim is to investigate the extent to which modularity can be applied to make clinical pathways in specialist mental health care more flexible in order to stimulate shared decision making (SDM) and thereby customise care processes to patient contexts while maintaining evidence-based standards. Methods consist of literature research and a theory-based case study including document analysis and semi-structured interviews, which were performed at a Dutch specialist mental health care organisation. The results show that in current literature two modularity-based structures are proposed that support flexibility and customisation, i.e., ‘Prototype’ and ‘Menu-based’. This study reveals that departments tend to use the prototype method if they have predictable patient needs, evidence-based methods are available and there is sequency in treatment components. The menu-based method is preferred if there are unpredictable needs, or the evidence needed to create interconnectedness in treatment is lacking. In conclusion, prototype or menu-based methods are both suitable for applying SDM and reaching customisation in practice. The choice is determined by three characteristics: predictability of needs, availability of evidence and the interconnectedness of treatment components.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 153-175
Thio Christian Sulistio ◽  
Esther Gunawan

Abstract. The world is currently enduring an epidemic of COVID-19 which causes suffering and pain. Facing the COVID-19 pandemic, Indonesian people have shown various responses. One pupular respond is theological fatalism, which believe that God has determined everything so that human efforts and actions are not necessary. In connection to this, the question arouse whether Christian theology, especially Christian theodicy, which was represented in this paper by John Calvin and C. S. Lewis, fell into fatalism? To answer this question, the writer would compare of the two theodicies by using a literature research. Through this research, it was concluded that neither John Calvin's theodicy nor C. S Lewis's had fallen into theological fatalism. Both emphasized free will and human responsibility in making choices and actions. The right attitude is to submit to the authority of God's word which commands us to act by doing good to others who are suffering and sick.Abstrak. Dunia saat ini sedang dilanda wabah penyakit COVID-19 yang menyebabkan penderitaan dan kesakitan. Berhadapan dengan pandemi COVID-19, manusia Indonesia menunjukkan berbagai respon. Salah satu yang umum adalah fatalisme teologis yakni kepercayaan bahwa Allah sudah menetapkan segala sesuatu sehingga usaha dan perbuatan manusia tidak membuat perbedaan dan dampak di dalam sejarah kehidupan. Berkaitan dengan hal tersebut muncul pertanyaan apakah teologi Kristen, khususnya teodise Kristen, yang diwakili di dalam paper ini oleh John Calvin dan C. S. Lewis jatuh ke dalam fatalisme? Untuk menjawab pertanyaan tersebut penulis akan membandingkan kedua teodise tersebut dengan menggunakan studi pustaka. Melalui penelitian tersebut disimpulkan bahwa baik teodise John Calvin maupun C. S Lewis tidak jatuh ke dalam fatalisme teologis. Kedua-duanya sama-sama menekankan kehendak bebas dan tanggung jawab manusia di dalam melakukan pilihan dan tindakan. Sikap yang tepat adalah tunduk kepada otoritas firman Tuhan yang memerintahkan kita untuk bertindak dengan berbuat baik kepada sesama yang menderita dan sakit.

2021 ◽  
Juan Guillermo Perez-Carreno ◽  
Carolina Torres-Sarmiento ◽  
Andres Felipe Duarte Castro ◽  
Luis Eduardo Gomez ◽  
Vivienne C Bachelet

Background: Research integrity is a dynamic area within the ethical research ecosystem. Several efforts have been made to incorporate this topic in scientific governance frameworks. However, the efforts generally result in non-binding declarations and policies. Due to differences in legal systems, research cultures, and institutional approaches worldwide, there is a need to identify and map existent strategies on sound scientific practices. Objective: This scoping review aims to systematically search, map, and evaluate the best available evidence on strategies and recommendations regarding research integrity. The goal is to identify international, national, regional, and local legal frameworks, institutional policies and guidelines, research integrity policies, interventions, strategies, and recommendations for: (i) The design and conduct of research projects, (ii) The publication of research results, (iii) The monitoring of scientific practices, (iv) The implementation of corrective actions, and (v) Mentoring and education on research integrity. Methods: The search will follow the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) and the methodological approach designed by Arksey and O'Malley. It will include legal frameworks, national and international governmental and non-governmental documentation, and scholarly articles published in peer-reviewed journals on research integrity. The search will be conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, JSTOR, Latin American & Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (Lilacs), Scopus, OECD Library. It will be complemented with hand searching and scanning, covering other databases and grey literature sources. We will extract and synthesize the data using two macro-genres: legal documents (soft law and hard law) and non-legal documents. Keywords: Research integrity, publication ethics, scoping review, Latin America

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (4) ◽  
Jonathan P. Miller

The validity of the name Amnicola subproducta Paladilhe has been controversial since the time of its publication. Several authors debated about whether to use this name instead of the original Amnicola spirata Paladilhe. Since the recent resumption of the debate seems poorly justified, literature research was done in order to clarify the validity of these names. An etymological analysis of the word Pseudamnicola is presented in order to ascertain the correct grammatical gender of the name.

Psikhiatriya ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 68-79
T. A. Solokhina ◽  
M. V. Kuzminova ◽  
V. G. Mitikhin

Purpose: analysis of domestic and foreign literature on the possibilities, features, benefi ts and limitations of telepsychiatry/ telepsychology. Material and method: the keywords “telepsychiatry, telepsychology, remote psychiatric care, impact of pandemic on mental health, information technology in psychiatry” were used to select publications available in MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Web of science, eLibrary, Google. Results: literature research has shown that telepsychiatry is a service-enhancing modality that promotes equitable access and high levels of patient satisfaction. The coronavirus pandemic has led to an inevitable increase in the use of this method in the provision of psychiatric as well as psychological services. Telepsychiatry has both clinical and non-clinical applications, e.g. in administration, training and research. A large body of evidence shows that telepsychiatric diagnostic assessments are reliable and that the clinical outcomes of telepsychiatric interventions are comparable to those of traditional treatment among various patient groups, irrespective of age, diagnosis and other variables. However, the evidence base for telepsychiatry/telepsychology is still relatively limited in many aspects of effectiveness, and is often complicated by methodological problems, including technological diffi culties, negative opinions and pessimistic perceptions among psychiatrists, and several legal, ethical and administrative barriers. These impede wide implementation of telepsychiatry and its integration into everyday medicine. Conclusion: further advances in remote technology and research will solve many of the problems of telepsychiatry, and its development is likely to consist in the application of telepsychiatry as an adjunct to conventional medicine, and in the development of hybrid models, incorporating both conventional and telepsychiatric forms of psychiatric and psychological care.

Inventions ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 68
Juan D. Borrero

Climate and social changes are deeply affecting current agro-food systems. Unsustainable agricultural practices and the low profitability of small farmers are challenging the agricultural development of rural areas. This study aims to develop a novel, modular and low-cost vertical hydroponic farm system through reviews of the patented literature, research literature and variants of commercial products. After a detailed conceptualization process, a prototype was fabricated and tested at my university to validate its technology readiness level (TRL). The outcomes supported the usability and performance of the present utility model but highlighted several changes that are necessary before it can pass to the next TRL. This study shows that the prototype has the potential to not only solve food sovereignty but also to benefit society by advancing the innovations in food production and improving quality of life.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 121
Moh Zarkasi ◽  
Erie Hariyanto

Observing the phenomenon of the rise of online buying and selling with cash on delivery (COD) payment systems that are not following consumer satisfaction, this research aims to discuss the view of Sharia economic law in the process of online buying and selling with the COD payment system. This type of research is literature research, using qualitative descriptive methods. Its approach is through normative and empirical legal approaches in the form of case studies. The results of this study concluded that based on the propositions of the Qur'an and hadith and the opinions of fiqh scholars, basically doing business is allowed as long as there is no element of gambling, fraud, riba, gharar, and dharar. In the case of online buying and selling with the COD payment system, if the goods sold are halal, it is clear that the quality and quantity of goods are between those offered by the seller and those received by the buyer; the payment is no element of fraud and addition, except for the postage agreed at the beginning, then according to Sharia economic law, the law can (mubah). However, conversely, if the practice of buying and selling online with COD payments, there are elements of gharar (unclear goods), riba (additional price without replacement), tadlis (fraud), and dharar (danger) that have an impact on harming sellers or buyers, then the law is haram.

Vanessa Nadig ◽  
Ken Herrmann ◽  
Felix M. Mottaghy ◽  
Volkmar Schulz

AbstractPurpose Since the 1990s, PET has been successfully combined with MR or CT systems. In the past years, especially PET systems have seen a trend towards an enlarged axial field of view (FOV), up to a factor of ten. Methods Conducting a thorough literature research, we summarize the status quo of contemporary total-body (TB) PET/CT scanners and give an outlook on possible future developments. Results Currently, three human TB PET/CT systems have been developed: The PennPET Explorer, the uExplorer, and the Biograph Vision Quadra realize aFOVs between 1 and 2 m and show a tremendous increase in system sensitivity related to their longer gantries. Conclusion The increased system sensitivity paves the way for short-term, low-dose, and dynamic TB imaging as well as new examination methods in almost all areas of imaging.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Daniel Olah ◽  
B. Levente Alpek

AbstractThe overall aim of the study is to create the theoretical model of spatial production for innovation, which provides a measurement basis for later research as well as providing a measurement framework for the territorial indexation of innovation. In addition, it raises the question of what factors can hinder and which can help the formation and development of the spatial production of innovation. In the context of the above, based on a chronological, multidimensional review and analysis of literature research, it summarizes and presents the possibilities of interpreting the concept of innovation, paying attention to its territorial aspects. The model presented in our study builds on the literature on the external–internal divisions of innovation barriers, but also differs in that the model simultaneously displays the socio-economic space (innovation ecosystem), the regional scales as well as time. Presenting the typological barriers to innovation and summarizing the related factors, as well as developing a model to measure the issue, can help by specifically promoting the development of regions with less innovation capacity and potential in this field, at the same time providing a basis for assessing the territorial aspects of the phenomenon, which may also support the creation of development programmes to support the resolution of territorial disparities.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 2846
Konstantinos Oikonomou ◽  
Kendall Mongird ◽  
Jennie S. Rice ◽  
Juliet S. Homer

As increasing pressures of population growth and climate change arise, water and power systems (WPS) are becoming increasingly interdependent. This interdependency has resulted in an increased potential for cascading failures, whereby the service interruption of one system can propagate to interdependent ones. This paper makes four contributions. First, we present an extensive literature review in the field of integrated water and power resilience, leveraging both institutional and technical literature research landscapes. We compare various modeling approaches used to model interdependent WPS and discuss the different metrics and definitions that are typically employed to quantify and define resilience. Relevant challenges and gaps related to modeling tools and metrics are also discussed, and appropriate recommendations are made. Second, the paper presents a visualization prototype for interdependent WPS to showcase water and power system interdependencies and reveal co-managed resilience strategies that can be used to improve resilience under different types of common threats. Third, we provide a conceptual decision support framework that simultaneously optimizes a portfolio of co-managed resilience strategies in the face of multiple, uncertain threats and addresses WPS interdependencies. Finally, we present future trends regarding digitalization, integrated planning, collaborative governance, and equity needs for building more resilient WPS.

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