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Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 295
Author(s):  
Piotr Cheluszka ◽  
Amadeus Jagieła-Zając

For effective mining, it is essential to ensure that the picks are positioned correctly on the working unit of a mining machine. This is due to the fact that the design of roadheader cutting heads/drums using computer-aided tools is based on the operating conditions of the roadheader/shearer/milling machine. The geometry of the cutting head is optimized for selected criteria by simulating the mining process using a computer. The reclaimed cutting head bodies that are utilized in production are manufactured again in the overhaul process. Ensuring that the dimensions of the cutting head bodies match the rated dimensions is labor-intensive and involves high production costs. For dimensional deviations of the cutting head bodies, it is necessary to control the position of the pick holders relative to the cutting head side surface in real time during robotic-assisted assembly. This article discusses the possibility of utilizing a stereovision system for calculating the distance between the pick holder base and the roadheader cutting head side surface at the point where the pick holder is mounted. The proposed measurement method was tested on a robotic measurement station constructed for the purpose of the study. A mathematical measurement model and procedures that allow automatic positioning of the camera system to the photographed objects, as well as acquisition and analysis of the measurement images, were developed. The proposed method was validated by using it for measuring the position of the pick holders relative to the side surface of the working unit of a mining excavating machine, focusing on its application in robotic technology. The article also includes the results observed in laboratory tests performed on the developed measurement method with an aim of determining its suitability for the metrology task under consideration.


Author(s):  
A. S. Kozeruk ◽  
A. A. Sukhotsky ◽  
R. O. Diaz González ◽  
M. I. Filonova ◽  
V. O. Kuznechik ◽  
...  

The scheme of processing conical surfaces by grinding them to a flat tool is considered and a technical solution for the implementation of such processing is proposed. Using the created device allows implementing the group method of forming conical parts with a deviation of the generatrix of the cone from straightness of not more than ± 0.00012 mm. A mathematical model of the patterns of removal of stock from a conical part with a flat tool is developed. A formula is obtained for calculating the modulus of the sliding velocity at any point on the processed conical surface, which implements engineering methods for controlling the shaping of conical parts without conducting preliminary labor-intensive experimental studies. An optimization technique for the adjustment parameters of technological equipment was proposed. The most effective axicon processing modes were revealed at the stages of preliminary, medium and fine grinding, as well as at the polishing stage, depending on the technological heredity of the workpiece from the point of view of distribution of the stock to be removed over its surface. It has been established that changes in the eccentricity between the axes of rotation of the tool and the faceplate as well as the amplitudes of the reciprocating rotational movements of the latter practically do not affect both accuracy and processing productivity, therefore, in practice, these parameters can not be optimized, but their average values can be assigned. The operating modes of the basic lever grinding and polishing machine are established, at which the required accuracy of the working surface of the tool is provided, which directly affects the straightness of the generatrix of the cone. Studies of the regularities of the shaping of the side surface of a conical lens in the conditions of free grinding are carried out and the adjustment parameters of technological equipment that affect the quality and productivity of the processing process are determined.


Author(s):  
В.О. Попов ◽  
В.Н. Комов ◽  
Е.М. Попенко ◽  
А.В. Сергиенко

Данная статья посвящена исследованию влияния пористости прессованных таблеток из сверхтонкого порошка алюминия (СТП Al). Определен механизм горения, протекающий в две стадии: первая, медленная, включающая в себя как «кольцевое» горение боковой поверхности, так и параллельное горение концентрическими слоями, вторая стадия объемная, сопровождающаяся резким самопроизвольным увеличением температуры горения и интенсивности свечения. Показано, что увеличение плотности упаковки СТП Al позволяет замедлить процесс окисления алюминия более чем в два раза. Это обусловлено снижением газопроницаемости таблетки и затруднением доступа воздуха вглубь образца. Повышение пористости материала позволяет регулировать процесс нитридообразования за счёт увеличения содержания азота в продуктах при фильтрационном механизме горения, что открывает возможности получения тугоплавких материалов. This article is devoted to the study of the effect of porosity of compressed tablets from ultrafine aluminum powder (STP Al). The combustion mechanism was determined, which proceeds in two stages: the first, slow, which includes both "ring" combustion of the side surface and parallel combustion with concentric layers, the second stage is volumetric, accompanied by a sharp spontaneous increase in the combustion temperature and glow intensity. It has been shown that an increase in the packing density of HFC Al makes it possible to slow down the process of aluminum oxidation by more than two times. This is due to a decrease in the gas permeability of the tablet and the difficulty of air access deep into the sample. An increase in the porosity of the material makes it possible to regulate the process of nitride formation by increasing the nitrogen content in the products during the filtration mechanism of combustion, which opens up the possibility of obtaining refractory materials.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (4) ◽  
pp. 8565-8579
Author(s):  
Mohammad Noghabi ◽  
I. Sattari-far ◽  
H. Hosseini Toudeshky

Numerical and experimental study was conducted on fatigue crack growth (FCG) of metallic components to investigate the redistribution of mechanical residual stresses during FCG. To this end, the compact tension specimens of an aluminium alloy were used. In addition, mechanical residual stresses were introduced near the crack tip by applying compressive and tensile loads, followed by visually observing the side-surface of the specimens to estimate the crack growth length. In the numerical simulation, cyclic J-integral was used as the crack growth fracture parameter and a good agreement was observed between the numerical and experimental results. The results of the finite element method demonstrated a clear redistribution of mechanical residual stresses during FCG. After a few cycles, the residual stress field around the crack tip reached a lower magnitude value confined in a smaller zone, although this zone was stable during the remaining fatigue process. Finally, present study evaluated the effect of stress ratio, load amplitude, and initial residual stresses level on the redistribution of residual stresses. It was observed that the residual stresses are mainly released during the first steps of fatigue loading.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 57-71
Author(s):  
O. A Bogomolova

The results of computer modeling of the process of formation and development of areas of plastic deformations in the connected base of a double-slit ribbon foundation are presented. All calculations are performed using computer programs developed with the participation of the author. These programs allow you to take into account all the variety of physical and mechanical properties of the foundation soil (volume weight, internal friction angle, specific adhesion, lateral pressure coefficient and deformation modulus) and the foundation material (elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio). In the calculations, it is assumed that the value of the lateral pressure coefficient of the soil is 0.75, as is typical for cohesive clay soils, and the same value for the foundation material is assumed to be 0.43 (converted through the Poisson's ratio). Based on the results of calculations, it was possible to determine the features of the stress state of the base of the double-slit foundation and the process of development of plastic areas in the core of the foundation. First of all, the part of the bearing capacity of the base of the double-slit foundation that contacts its side surface is realized, and the inclusion of the side surface of the slit foundation in the work occurs from the bottom up. Then the part of the base that is located directly under the soles of the walls in the ground (cracks) is included in the work. It is established that the smaller the distance between the slits, the greater the bearing capacity of the base and the greater its part falls on the side surface. The bearing capacity of the base of a double-slit foundation is directly proportional to the depth of its foundation (the height of the cracks). The part of the load-bearing capacity realized on the side surface of the foundation can reach 60 % or more of its full value. An engineering method for calculating the load-bearing capacity of the base of a double-slit foundation, including simple formulas and graphs, is proposed. The method is formalized in a calculator program. The verification calculations showed a high degree of accuracy in approximating the results of the numerical experiment.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Abdulqadir Rampurawala ◽  
Amol Patil

Orthodontic miniscrews have had a considerable impact on modern orthodontic treatment, not only by providing a new source of anchors for anchorage-demanding cases, but also for force management and control. Whilst miniscrews need to be mechanically stable during treatment to provide sufficient anchorage and predictable force control, as temporary anchorage devices they need also be easy to remove after orthodontic treatment. These requirements differentiate orthodontic miniscrews from dental implants - which once placed, are not to be removed - and dictate the approach as to how their clinical performance can be optimized. Over the past decade, various titanium surface modifications and improvements in implant surface topography have shown to enhance osseointegration of endosseous dental implants. Some of these techniques have helped provide a similar enhancement of the biomechanical potential of orthodontic miniscrews as well. In this perspective, we present a brief discussion on all such reported techniques followed by a detailed account of the most recently proposed ultraviolet photofunctionalization technique - a novel chair-side surface modification method.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2131 (2) ◽  
pp. 022059
Author(s):  
K K Kim

Abstract When creating MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) alternating current generators using liquid-metal working body, the latter is accelerated by piston method, in which the working body is a periodic structure of alternating zones of liquid metal (pistons) and zones of compressed gas, the latter is accelerated liquid-metal pistons. This raises the form stability problem for liquid metal pistons. Viscous frictional forces generated inside the pistons lead to the destruction of the pistons and significantly reduce the efficiency of the MHD unit. One solution is to use gas-permeable walls of the channels of MHD-generators, through the pores of which gas is injected. In this way, the piston flow is isolated from the side surface of the channel by the penetrating gas in the channel cavity. As a result, friction losses are drastically reduced. At the final values of the One solution is to use gas-permeable walls of the channels of MHD-generators, through the pores of which gas is injection coefficients, (? ≥ 0.03)the friction practically disappears. With the channel length determined by the coordinate of the maximum piston speed, 92% of the current marginal efficiency values can be achieved. The maximum efficiency of the runaway channel can be achieved by selecting the optimal value of the air injection coefficient. The operation of the devices commutating the injected gas must ensure that there is an injection in an area that is no more than twice the length of the piston.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrzej Krześniak ◽  
Tomasz Gabler ◽  
Monika Janik ◽  
Marcin Koba ◽  
Martin Jönsson-Niedziółka ◽  
...  

Microfluidics provide unique possibilities to control tiny volumes of liquids and their composition. To effectively benefit from the advantages of microfluidic solutions they need to be supported by interrogation subsystems, at best also matching the miniature scale. In this work we combined with a microfluidic system a Microcavity in-line Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (µIMZI) induced in the side surface of a single-mode optical fiber using a femtosecond laser micromachining. The µIMZI shows capability for investigating optical properties of as small as picoliter volumes with an exceptionally high sensitivity. Here we report numerical analysis and experimental results that show that when the µIMZI is incorporated with the microfluidic system the measurements can be performed with sensitivity exceeding 14,000 nm/RIU which is similar to measurements done under static conditions. In a flow injection system we show that a certain amount of liquid and flow rate are required to effectively exchange the liquid in the microcavity, while orientation of the cavity versus the flow direction has a minor impact on the exchange. Finally, we have supported the system by band electrodes making it possible to induce redox reactions in the microchannel and optical detection of flowing products of the reactions. It has been found that thanks to the high sensitivity of the µIMZI the products of the reactions can be clearly detected both electrochemically and optically even when the only part of the flowing redox probe is oxidized at the band electrode. This work proves that the proposed solution may offer highly sensitive optical measurements, even when the chemical reactions are not effective in the whole volume of the system.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhenlin Yang ◽  
Yulu Wang ◽  
Yujia Jin ◽  
Yuanfei Zhu ◽  
Yanling Wu ◽  
...  

AbstractThe current COVID-19 pandemic has heavily burdened the global public health system and may keep simmering for years. The frequent emergence of immune escape variants have spurred the search for prophylactic vaccines and therapeutic antibodies that confer broad protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here we show that the bivalency of an affinity maturated fully human single-domain antibody (n3113.1-Fc) exhibits exquisite neutralizing potency against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, and confers effective prophylactic and therapeutic protection against authentic SARS-CoV-2 in the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) humanized mice. The crystal structure of n3113 in complex with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, combined with the cryo-EM structures of n3113 and spike ecto-domain, reveals that n3113 binds to the side surface of up-state RBD with no competition with ACE2. The binding of n3113 to this novel epitope stabilizes spike in up-state conformations but inhibits SARS-CoV-2 S mediated membrane fusion, expanding our recognition of neutralization by antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Binding assay and pseudovirus neutralization assay show no evasion of recently prevalent SARS-CoV-2 lineages, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), and Delta (B.1.617.2) for n3113.1-Fc with Y58L mutation, demonstrating the potential of n3113.1-Fc (Y58L) as a promising candidate for clinical development to treat COVID-19.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrzej Krześniak ◽  
Tomasz Gabler ◽  
Monika Janik ◽  
Marcin Koba ◽  
Martin Jönsson-Niedziółka ◽  
...  

Microfluidics provide unique possibilities to control tiny volumes of liquids and their composition. To effectively benefit from the advantages of microfluidic solutions they need to be supported by interrogation subsystems, at best also matching the miniature scale. In this work we combined with a microfluidic system a Microcavity in-line Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (µIMZI) induced in the side surface of a single-mode optical fiber using a femtosecond laser micromachining. The µIMZI shows capability for investigating optical properties of as small as picoliter volumes with an exceptionally high sensitivity. Here we report numerical analysis and experimental results that show that when the µIMZI is incorporated with the microfluidic system the measurements can be performed with sensitivity exceeding 14,000 nm/RIU which is similar to measurements done under static conditions. In a flow injection system we show that a certain amount of liquid and flow rate are required to effectively exchange the liquid in the microcavity, while orientation of the cavity versus the flow direction has a minor impact on the exchange. Finally, we have supported the system by band electrodes making it possible to induce redox reactions in the microchannel and optical detection of flowing products of the reactions. It has been found that thanks to the high sensitivity of the µIMZI the products of the reactions can be clearly detected both electrochemically and optically even when the only part of the flowing redox probe is oxidized at the band electrode. This work proves that the proposed solution may offer highly sensitive optical measurements, even when the chemical reactions are not effective in the whole volume of the system.


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