Introduction: Although worldwide maternal and neonatal mortalities have decreased, but Achieving sustainable development goals remains an unfinished agenda and global challenge. This study aimed to predict neonatal and maternal index based on development and demographic indicators. Methods: In this ecologic study, the dependent variables were Maternal mortality ratio (MMR), Neonatal mortality rate (NMR), and Under 5 Mortality Rate (U5MR) and the independent variables were Gender gap index (GGI) and its four components, human development, life expectancy, total fertility rate, and population growth. Data conducted using international secondary data published data bases of health metrics from 2016 to 2018 in 149 countries from WHO (World Health Organization), World Economic Forum, UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund), and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). Data analysis was performed using correlation model in Stata version 14.1 software. Results: In this study, economic participation and total fertility rate are positively and educational attainment, Human Capital Index and life expectancy are negatively associated with MMR. Human Capital Index, Educational attainment, and Life expectancy are negatively associated with NMR. Economic participation and total fertility rate are positively and educational attainment, Human Capital Index and life expectancy are negatively associated with U5MR. Discussion: To reduce the maternal and neonatal mortality rate, it is important to pay attention to indirect causes such as equal conditions for men and women to demographic and population indices such as economic participation, educational attainment, Human Capital Index and life expectancy.
In vitro fertilization is one of the most common and effective procedure for thousands of couples worldwide who want to have a child and are unable to do so for various reasons. Diverse studies show that couples who conceive naturally after one year of trying had newborns with an increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight, compared with couples who conceived before completing one year of trying. Children from assisted reproduction (AR), have a 30% increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight, compared with children from infertile fathers. Regarding the conflicting results the present study aimed to record the frequency of genetic, congenital anomalies in children and adolescents who had examined in the last decade to the Clinical Genetics Clinic of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens whose mothers had undergone assisted reproduction. The research process was conducted at the "Aghia Sofia" Children's Hospital based in Athens. However, the cases that were studied came from all over Greece. Initially, the researcher recorded the cases that came to the clinic of Clinical Genetics and whose conception occurred after technical assisted reproduction. After telephone communication and the consent of the parents, a live appointment was scheduled. In this meeting-interview all the provisions of the investigation and the protocol were asked and some elements of the medical history of the cases were confirmed. The total sample included 230 children and adolescents. The resulting data were recorded on a printed form/questionnaire. Then, they were registered electronically in the program SPSS 25.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) with a specific unit code for each case/patient, followed by the processing and statistical analysis of the data as well as the recording of the results. The gender of the participants was male for 118 participants (51.3%) and 112 females (48.7%). Mean and standard deviation (SD) of maternal, paternal (at the time of delivery) age was equal to 36.38 (5.94) and 39.94 (6.58) respectively. The observed abdormalities were 35.53% psychomotor retardation, 23.68% facial abnormalities, 23.68% spinal cord abnormalities, 21.05% morphological abnormalities, 20.61% short stature, 19.74% developmental disorders, 19.30% heart disease, 16.67% neurological diseases, 14.47% genetic syndromes, 11.40% genital abnormalities, 8.33% limb abnormalities, 7.46% dermatological abnormalities, 6.14% eye abnormalities, 6.14% hypothyroidism, 5.70% endocrine disorders, 5.26%otolaryngology abnormalities, 2.63% disease of kidney, intestine, 2.19% vascular malformations. Regarding the karyotype chromosome analysis by G-banding technique, from the 230 children in: 24 (10.43%) a pathological result was found, in 158 children (68.70%) it was found normal (46, XX or 46, XY by case) without other findings, while in 48 children (20.87%) the test was not performed for various reasons. Regarding the results of molecular analysis (DNA) from the 230 children, in 50 (21.74%) a pathological finding was found, in 56 children (24.35%) no abnormalities were found and in 124 children (53.91%) no molecular analysis was performed for various reasons. In conclusion, the sample of this descriptive study is characterized as uniform in terms of the method of assisted reproduction since 96.24% had followed the classic IVF. Full-term pregnancy was associated with the appearance of malignancy and head morphological abnormalities (64.6%), normal pregnancy was associated with genetic syndromes (18.2%) and facial abnormalities (11.1%). It is recommended the screening oocyte and sperm donors in order to help protect the safety and health of donors, recipients, and future offspring. The present study confirms the association of the presence of congenital anomalies after in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, the absolute risk of developing severe dysplasias after an IVF procedure is limited.
Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is uncommon tumour arising from the female reproductive tract. Incidence of LMS in pregnancy is extremely rare, with only 10 cases reported thus far in medical literature. We present a case of myomectomy performed during elective caesarean section for breech presentation, due to its easy accessibility and well contracted uterus. Subsequent histology revealed LMS on final specimen. Patient subsequently underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. No chemotherapy was given as she opted for close clinical- radiological monitoring instead. This case report highlights the importance of discussion with patients regarding the risk of occult malignancy in a fibroid uterus. Appropriate management of uterine leiomyosarcoma in pregnancy remains unclear. Consideration of removing an enlarging leiomyoma during caesarean section might be ideal in view of its malignant potential, just like in this case; however, location of the tumour and risk of bleeding needs to be weighed. Ultimately, management of such cases needs proper discussion between obstetrician and the patient.
Objectives: We analyzed the indications of cesarean section (CS) using Robson Ten-Group. Classification Systems (RTGCS) and comparison between private and public health facilities in Addis Abeba hospitals, Ethiopia, 2017. Methods: Facility-based retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out between January 1 and December 31, 2017, including 2411 mothers who delivered by CS were classified using the RTGCS. Data were entered into SPSS version 20 for cleaning and analyzing. Binary logistic regression and AOR with 95% CI were used to assess the determinants of the CS. Results: The overall CS rate was 41% (34.8% and 66.8% in public & private respectively, p < .0001). The leading contributors for CS rate in the private were Robson groups 5,1,2,3 whereas in the public 5,1,3,2 on descending order. Robson group 1 (nulliparous, cephalic, term, spontaneous labor) and group 3 [Multiparous (excluding previous cesarean section), singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks’ gestation& spontaneous labor], the CS rate was over two-fold higher in the private than the public sector. Women in Robson groups 1, 2, 5 & 9 are two and more times higher for the absolute contribution of CS in private than public. The top medical indications of CS were non-reassuring fetal status (NRFS, 39.1%) and repeat CS for previous CS scars (39.4%) in public and private respectively. Mothers who delivered by CS in private with history of previous CS scar (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-6.2), clinical indications of maternal request (AOR 7.7, 95% CI 2.1-27.98) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (AOR 4.2, 95% CI 1.6-10.7), induced labor (AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.6) and pre-labored (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6-3.0) were more likely to undergo CS than in public hospital. Conclusion: The prevalence of CS was found to be high, and was significantly higher in private hospitals than in a public hospital. Having CS scar [having previous CS scar, Robson group 5(Previous CS, singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks’ gestation) and an indication of repeat CS for previous CS scar] is the likely factor that increased the CS rate in private when compared within the public hospital. Recommendation: It is important that efforts to reduce the overall CS rate should focus on reducing the primary CS, encouraging vaginal birth after CS (VBAC). Policies should be directed at the private sector where CS indication seems not to be driven by medical reasons solely.
Primary umbilical cutaneous endometriosis is a rare umbilical endometrioma that affects women who are within the reproductive age group. It may be associated with infertility and severe dysmenorrhea and can be difficult to diagnosed in an asymptomatic patient. We report a case of a 38-year-old nulliparous with seven years history of infertility and severe dysmenorrhea. Her hormonal profile assay and hysterosalpingogram results were normal while her husband semen analysis was also within normal range. She complained of monthly bleeding from a painful rubbery multilobate cutaneous nodule on the umbilicus of one year duration. She was diagnosed of cutaneous endometriosis. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically and she had surgical excision with good outcome.
The lumbar epidural analgesia is commonly used for labour analgesia. The “loss of resistance to air” LORA technique is commonly used for recognition of epidural space. One of the rare complications of this technique is Pneumocephalus (PC). We want to present a case of Pneumocephalus which the mother developed during epidural analgesia in labour. The patient complained of severe headache immediately after attempt at epidural catheter insertion. The symptoms progressively worsened following delivery. A postnatal anaesthetic review was performed and an urgent CT scan of the brain was arranged that showed pneumocephalus. A conservative management pathway was followed with liberal analgesia, oxygen inhalation and keeping the patient mostly in supine position. Her symptoms regressed in severity over the next three days and subsided after one week. We believe that the amount of air used for LORA should be minimized; LORA should not be used after dural puncture and the use of normal saline would alleviate the risk.
Background: Obstetric fistula is a condition that results from obstructed labour, which occurs when the baby cannot pass through the mother’s birth canal because it either does not come head first or is too large for her pelvis. Prompt medical intervention, often including Caesarean section, permits a safe delivery for both mother and child. Despite this possibility, yearly, thousands of women across the country receive no such aid and their labour is a futile agony lasting between three and five days, with uterine contractions constantly forcing the baby, usually head first, against the organs of the pelvic and unyielding pelvic bone resulting in Vesico Vaginal Fistula (VVF). The main thrust of this study was to examine how health system factors affect health seeking behaviour of women with obstetric fistula in Akwa Ibom and Ebonyi States, Nigeria. Methods: Qualitative and descriptive research approaches were adopted for the study and a total sample of two hundred and sixteen (216) respondents comprising of one hundred and fifty (150) post fistula repair operative patients and sixty six (66) health workers were purposively selected using simple random techniques. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis and tables of frequency. Results: The respondents views showed that availability of treatment centre and quality of health care services influenced health seeking behaviour of women with obstetric fistula in Nigeria. Conclusion: The study indicated that health seeking behaviour of women with obstetric fistula is a major challenge in Nigeria. Establishment and proper equipment of obstetric fistula treatment centres as well as subsidization of the cost of treatment to allow women with this health problem to access health care services are strongly recommended. Therefore, government at all level and non-governmental organizations need to educate the women and create awareness on the causes and dangers of VVF.
Objective: To observe the predominance of fetal anomalies in pregnant women in a multi-centric setting. Methods: This prospective observational study included 20225 pregnant women who came for antenatal care in University Hospital and fetal medicine units from 2016 to 2019. Fetal anatomical scanning was done for all participants. Results: One hundred eighty-three cases had fetal congenital anomalies, yielding a prevalence of around 0.9%. Third of cases had positive consanguinity, this increased in cases of skeletal and thoracic anomalies. The presence of past history of anomalies was evident in 8.2% mostly with skeletal and heart anomalies. History of drug intake was only verified in 1.6% of cases. Sixty-three women out of 183 (34.4%) were diagnosed to have anomalies in fetal nervous system. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis are recommended for early detection of congenital anomalies and counselling.
Puerperal acute uterine inversion is a rare obstetric condition observed as a serious complication during the third stage of labor. Reported as one of the causes of postpartum haemorrhage, it commonly requires quick diagnosis and surgical treatment in order to reduce morbidity and lethality. The authors describe a case of uterine inversion with hypovolemic shock after home birth, brought to Hospital Leonor Mendes de Barros. The purpose of this article is to describe a case of acute uterine inversion and its management and a review of aetiology, predictive and risk factors, diagnosis and treatment.