Phenolic Antioxidants
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Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 189
Brandon Aguiar ◽  
Helena Carmo ◽  
Jorge Garrido ◽  
José M. Sousa Lobo ◽  
Isabel F. Almeida

Polyphenols are a large family of natural compounds widely used in cosmetic products due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory beneficial properties and their ability to prevent UV radiation-induced oxidative stress. Since these compounds present chromophores and are applied directly to the skin, they can react with sunlight and exert phototoxic effects. The available scientific information on the phototoxic potential of these natural compounds is scarce, and thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the photoreactivity and phototoxicity of five phenolic antioxidants with documented use in cosmetic products. A standard ROS assay was validated and applied to screen the photoreactivity of the natural phenolic antioxidants caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and rutin. The phototoxicity potential was determined by using a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT), based on the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake phototoxicity test. Although all studied phenolic antioxidants absorbed UV/Vis radiation in the range of 290 to 700 nm, only DOPAC was able to generate singlet oxygen. The generation of reactive oxygen species is an early-stage chemical reaction as part of the phototoxicity mechanism. Yet, none of the studied compounds decreased the viability of keratinocytes after irradiation, leading to the conclusion that they do not have phototoxic potential. The data obtained with this work suggests that these compounds are safe when incorporated in cosmetic products.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (24) ◽  
pp. 8385
Guzel Ziyatdinova ◽  
Ekaterina Guss ◽  
Elvira Yakupova

The design and fabrication of novel electrochemical sensors with high analytical and operational characteristics are one of the sustainable trends in modern analytical chemistry. Polymeric film formation by the electropolymerization of suitable monomers is one of the methods of sensors fabrication. Among a wide range of the substances able to polymerize, the phenolic ones are of theoretical and practical interest. The attention is focused on the sensors based on the electropolymerized natural phenolic antioxidants and their analytical application. The typical electropolymerization reaction schemes are discussed. Phenol electropolymerization leads to insulating coverage formation. Therefore, a combination of electropolymerized natural phenolic antioxidants and carbon nanomaterials as modifiers is of special interest. Carbon nanomaterials provide conductivity and a high working surface area of the electrode, while the polymeric film properties affect the selectivity and sensitivity of the sensor response for the target analyte or the group of structurally related compounds. The possibility of guided changes in the electrochemical response for the improvement of target compounds’ analytical characteristics has appeared. The analytical capabilities of sensors based on electropolymerized natural phenolic antioxidants and their future development in this field are discussed.

2021 ◽  
pp. 117867
Luca Carena ◽  
Davide Vione ◽  
Marco Minella ◽  
Silvio Canonica ◽  
Ursula Schönenberger

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2625
Antonio J. Meléndez-Martínez ◽  
Ana Benítez ◽  
Mireia Corell ◽  
Dolores Hernanz ◽  
Paula Mapelli-Brahm ◽  

Flowers have been used for centuries in decoration and traditional medicine, and as components of dishes. In this study, carotenoids and phenolics from 125 flowers were determined by liquid chromatography (RRLC and UHPLC). After comparing four different extractants, the carotenoids were extracted with acetone: methanol (2:1), which led to a recovery of 83%. The phenolic compounds were extracted with 0.1% acidified methanol. The petals of the edible flowers Renealmia alpinia and Lantana camara showed the highest values of theoretical vitamin A activity expressed as retinol activity equivalents (RAE), i.e., 19.1 and 4.1 RAE/g fresh weight, respectively. The sample with the highest total phenolic contents was Punica granatum orange (146.7 mg/g dry weight). It was concluded that in most cases, flowers with high carotenoid contents did not contain high phenolic content and vice versa. The results of this study can help to develop innovative concepts and products for the industry.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2527
Ruimin Wang ◽  
Weimin Zhang ◽  
Ruiping He ◽  
Wu Li ◽  
Lu Wang

This study evaluates the application of eco-friendly deep eutectic solvents (DESs) in the extraction of phenolic antioxidants from dogbane leaf-tea (DLT). The results showed DESs with lower viscosity allowed an efficient extraction of significantly higher contents of total phenolics or flavonoids. An innovative and high-efficient solvent, choline chloride-levulinic acid (ChCl-LevA), was screened and used in ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from DLT. According to full factorial design experimental results, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity, and anti-α-glucosidase activity (α-GIA) of the DLT extracts were simultaneously optimized by response surface methodology. Sonication temperature and water content in ChCl-LevA were found to be the major factors affecting the TPC, TFC, antioxidant activity, and α-GIA of DLT extracts. Under the optimum parameters (water content in ChCl-LevA was 45%, sonication temperature was 50 °C, and extraction time was 30 min), the measured results for all the responses were obtained as follows: TPC-91.38 ± 7.20 mg GAE/g DW, TFC-84.12 ± 3.47 mg RE/g DW, ABTS+-492 ± 7.33 mmol TE/g DW, FRAP-6235 ± 121 μmol Fe(II)/g DW and α-GIA-230 ± 7.59 mmol AE/g DW, which were consistent with the predicted values. In addition, strongly significant positive correlations were observed between TPC/TFC and bio-activities of the DLT extracts. HPLC results indicated high contents of (-)-epigallocatechin (4272 ± 84.86 μg/g DW), catechin (5268 ± 24.53 μg/g DW), isoquercitrin (3500 ± 86.07 μg/g DW), kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (3717 ± 97.71 μg/g DW), and protocatechuic acid (644 ± 1.65 μg/g DW) were observed in the DLT extracts. In contrast to other extraction methods, ChCl-LevA-based UAE yielded higher TPC, TFC, individual phenolic contents, stronger antioxidant activity, and α-GIA. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis further confirmed that ChCl-LevA-based UAE enhanced the disruption of cell wall structure, thereby making more phenolic antioxidants released from DLT. In short, ChCl-LevA-based UAE was confirmed to be an innovative and high-efficient method for extraction of phenolic antioxidants from DLT. Dogbane leaves can be considered as a good tea source rich in natural antioxidants.

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