internal reliability
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2022 ◽  
Neil Hester ◽  
Jordan Axt ◽  
Eric Hehman

Racial attitudes, beliefs, and motivations lie at the center of many of the most influential theories of prejudice and discrimination. The extent to which such theories can meaningfully explain behavior hinges on accurate measurement of these latent constructs. We evaluated the validity properties of 25 race-related scales in a sample of 1,031,207 respondents using modern approaches such as dynamic fit indices, Item Response Theory, and nomological nets. Despite showing adequate internal reliability, many scales demonstrated poor model fit and had latent score distributions showing clear floor or ceiling effects, results that illustrate deficiencies in measures’ ability to capture their intended construct. Nomological nets further suggested that the theoretical space of “racial prejudice” is crowded with scales that may not actually capture meaningfully distinct latent constructs. We provide concrete recommendations for scale selection and renovation and outline implications for overlooking measurement issues in the study of prejudice and discrimination.

Jun (AJ) Ai ◽  
Jihong Zhang ◽  
Eva Horn ◽  
Hao Liu ◽  
Jingjing Huang ◽  

Abstract The purpose of this study was to understand the status and influential factors of preschool teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education, given the evidence that attitudes predict successful inclusion for young children with or at risk for developmental delays or disabilities. We translated the Multidimensional Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education Scale (MATIES, Mahat, 2008) to Simplified Chinese (MATIES-C). We then administered the MATIE-C to a representative sample of in-service preschool teachers (N = 481) in Beijing, China. The confirmative factor analysis and reliability tests suggested an acceptable construct validity and internal reliability of the MATIES-C. We also found preschool teachers in Beijing held positive attitudes towards inclusion across cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions of attitudes. The ANOVA results indicate teachers' experience and knowledge about children with disabilities had statistically positive associations with favorable attitudes. Preschool area, teacher age, and educational background were also found to have a statistically significant impact on teacher attitudes.

2022 ◽  
Helder Costa ◽  
Odete Amaral ◽  
João Duarte ◽  
Maria José Correia ◽  
Nélio Veiga ◽  

Abstract Background Health literacy is a main factor in health for its improvement, allowing the individuals to have a greater capacity to engage and participate in collective health promotion actions. The assessment of functional health literacy to determine the ability that each individual has to understand basic health information is essential. The aim of the present study was to translate and perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (REALD-30) to Portuguese language and test the reliability and validity of this version. Methods The REALD-30 in the Portuguese language (REALD-29 PT) was applied to a group of individuals that participate in the program Atividade Senior, developed by the municipality of Viseu, Portugal. The final sample was composed by 206 participants that accepted responding to the questionnaire and to the REALD-30 Portuguese version (REALD-29 PT). Translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire and the statistical validation was accomplished in order to complete the process and obtain the REALD-29 PT. Results The REALD-29 PT presented good internal reliability. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.89 to 0.90 when words were deleted individually. The analysis of test-retest reliability revealed excellent reproducibility. We can verify that the REALD-30 scale for assessment of oral health literacy among older adults presents an acceptable internal consistency, with a global Cronbach´s alpha of 0.894. Conclusions The REALD-29 PT scale can be applied to assess oral health literacy among older Portuguese adults, presenting an acceptable internal consistency and is validated to assess oral health literacy and is crucial in epidemiological studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 80 (1) ◽  
Carla Sabariego ◽  
Carolina Fellinghauer ◽  
Lindsay Lee ◽  
Kaloyan Kamenov ◽  
Aleksandra Posarac ◽  

Abstract Background Data on functioning and disability collected at population level is essential to complement mortality and morbidity, to estimate rehabilitation needs of countries and regions and to monitor the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The objective of this paper is to briefly report the development process of the WHO Model Disability Survey, its data analysis strategy as well as its reliability and ability to measure low to high levels of functioning and disability across countries. Methods The development process is described in detail, and a secondary analysis using Rasch methods is conducted to report reliability and targeting using data from eight national and two regional implementations of the survey. Results The currently available versions of the Model Disability Survey are presented. The survey has good to very good internal reliability and good targeting in all included countries. Conclusion The participatory and evidence-based development, consideration of the expertise of stakeholders, the availability of previously developed ICF-based surveys, and WHO tools targeting functioning and disability are reflected in its good to very good psychometric properties. The survey has been implemented to date in Afghanistan, Cameroon, Chile, Costa Rica, India, Laos, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Tajikistan, and is used to inform policy-making, to monitor the CRPD and SDGs and to plan the delivery of rehabilitation services.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 227-236
Suzaily Wahab ◽  

Interruptions caused by frequent smartphone use steals attention away from daily activities, bringing serious implications onto an individual’s health, safety and education. Smartphone Use Questionnaire (SUQ) is a 20-item questionnaire developed to assess the pattern of smartphone use and its effect on attention. This study was done to translate and validate the Malay-language version of the SUQ and to measure the psychometric properties of the Malay-version SUQ to justify its use in Malaysia. A forward and back-translation was done by four individuals, who were three physicians and one linguist. Content and face validity was done involving three experts who were a linguist, psychiatrist and epidemiologist. Psychometric testing was conducted on a sample of 195 individuals proficient in the Malay language. A construct validity test was performed using factor analysis and the internal reliability was tested by calculating for the Cronbach’s Alpha. The age range of the sample was 13-59 years, most of which were female and of the Malay race. Using principal component analysis with direct oblimin rotation, the factor analysis extracted two components similar to the original study: General Use and Absent-Minded Use. However, question number 20 was grouped into General Use component, whereas in the original study it was under the Absent- Minded Use component. The Cronbach’s Alpha for the obtained components was 0.884 and 0.927, respectively. This study found that the Malay-version SUQ was a valid and reliable instrument for use in Malaysia in assessing inattention associated with smartphone use.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Marc Rocholl ◽  
Julia Hannappel ◽  
Michaela Ludewig ◽  
Swen Malte John

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the most important risk factor for developing skin cancer. University students can be considered as a particularly high-risk group for long- and short-term adverse effects of UVR due to intensive solar UVR exposure and high rates of sunburn. While validated questionnaires for assessing solar UVR exposure and sun protection behavior are available in German, a questionnaire for assessing the level of knowledge about this topic is still missing. We conducted a literature search for cross-sectional studies assessing skin cancer and sun protection knowledge among university students in Medline (via PubMed) and analyzed existing questionnaires and topics contained therein. We chose to translate the “Skin Cancer and Sun Knowledge Scale” referring to the TRAPD method into the German language and pilot-tested the translation with an opportunity sample of German students. The literature search revealed 36 eligible studies. Four major topics were identified within the studies: knowledge on skin cancer, risk factors, UVR, and sun protection measures. One hundred and seven German university students (86.0% female) with a mean age of 26.25 years (SD ± 4.58; range: 19–46) participated in our pilot study. The internal reliability of the scale was KR-20 = 0.624. We discovered an improvable level of knowledge in terms of skin cancer among the study population. Statistical analyses revealed no significant associations between the level of knowledge and UVR exposure or tanning behavior, respectively. The skin cancer and sun protection knowledge of German university students should be examined thoroughly. While the psychometric properties of the SCSK require further thorough investigation, first empirical experiences indicate the suitability of the tool to assess the level of knowledge regarding skin cancer and sun protection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 195-209
Renato-Gabriel Petrea ◽  
Cristian-Mihail Rus ◽  
Marin Chirazi ◽  
Liliana-Elisabeta Radu ◽  
Pia-Simona Făgăraș

This research analyses the relation between the constructs quality of managers and internal communication and the dependent variable belonging to the institutional visual identity within the Faculties of Physical Education and Sport, funded by the State Budget, in Romania. The data within this study come from a research based on the survey method, with a questionnaire-based tool, reprised from the scientific literature and validated through Alpha Cronbach’s coefficient, ensuring the internal reliability analysis of each construct: the quality of managers, the internal communication, belonging to the institutional visual identity. The research was carried out on a sample of 261 persons from a population of 452 teaching staff members within the faculties of physical education and sport, funded by the State Budget, in Romania. The research was carried out on two directions: one concerning the correlation between the quality of managers and belonging to the institutional visual identity; and the other concerning the correlation between the internal communication and the same belonging to the institutional visual identity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (4) ◽  
pp. 376-394

The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) is a brief validated instrument adopted by many to assess the risk of exercise addiction. Its revised version (the EAI-R) has been recently validated in English with a predominantly male sample. The current work examined the model fit, validity and reliability of the Hungarian version of the EAI-R (EAI-R-HU). This cross-sectional study was conducted online. A convenience sample of regular exercisers (n = 253) completed the EAI-R-HU and answered demographic questions. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good model fit for the Hungarian version of the instrument. The internal reliability of the EAI-R-HU was (Cronbach’s α) .71. Considering the top 20% of the EAI-R-HU scores, 5.1% of the sample was at risk of exercise addiction. Team exercisers did not differ from individual exercisers in the risk of exercise addiction. Age and exercise characteristics predicted weakly but statistically significantly the risk of exercise addiction. The EAI-R-HU possesses a good model fit, and its internal reliability is acceptable. These findings complement the original revision of the EAI-R, based on a largely (87.7%) male sample compared to the current research primarily based on female participants (76.7%). While cultural differences might exist, the present results encourage the use of the EAI-R with women too and with Hungarian samples, in general.A Testedzésfüggőség Kérdőív (EAI) egy rövid, validált eszköz, amelyet a testedzésfüggőség kockázatának felmérésére használnak. Az angol nyelvű módosított változatát (EAI-R) nemrégiben egy többségében férfiakból álló mintán validálták. Jelen kutatás a magyar változat (EAI-R-HU) egyfaktoros elméleti struktúrájának illeszkedését, validitását, és a kérdőív belső megbízhatóságát vizsgálta. A hozzáférhetőségi mintavétellel zajló adatgyűjtés online történt. Rendszeresen edző önkéntesek (n = 253) kitöltötték a módosított EAI-t (EAI-R-HU) és megválaszolták a demográfiai kérdéseket. A megerősítő faktoranalízis jó modellillesztést mutatott, a skála belső megbízhatósága (Cronbach-α) pedig 0,71 volt. Az EAI-R-HU pontszámok felső 20%-át figyelembe véve, a jelen minta 5,14%-a volt feltételezhetően a testedzésfüggőség kockázatának kitéve. A csoportban edzők nem különböztek az egyéni edzést végzőktől a testedzésfüggőség kockázatát illetően. Az életkor és a testmozgás egyes jellemzői gyengén, de statisztikailag szignifikánsan prognosztizálták a testedzésfüggőség kockázatát. Az eredmények alapján az EAI-R-HU jó modellalkalmazással rendelkezik és a belső megbízhatósága elfogadható. Ezek a megállapítások kiegészítik az angol EAI-R változatát, amely nagyrészt (87,7%) férfi minta alapján jött létre, szemben a jelen kutatással, amely elsősorban női résztvevőkön alapszik (76,7%). Bár létezhetnek kulturális különbségek, a jelenlegi eredmények ösztönzik az EAI-R alkalmazását a nőknél is és az EAI-R-HU felhasználását magyar kutatásokban.

Petr Winnige ◽  
Katerina Filakova ◽  
Jakub Hnatiak ◽  
Filip Dosbaba ◽  
Otakar Bocek ◽  

Cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR) is an effective secondary preventive model of care. However, the use of CR is insufficient, and the reasons for this are not well-characterized in East-Central Europe. This prospective observational study psychometrically validated the recently translated Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale for the Czech language (CRBS-CZE) and identified the main CR barriers. Consecutive cardiac in/out-patients were approached from January 2020 for 18 months, of whom 186 (89.9%) consented. In addition to sociodemographic characteristics, participants completed the 21-item CRBS-CZE (response options 1–5, with higher scores representing greater barriers), and their CR utilization was tracked. Forty-five (24.2%) participants enrolled in CR, of whom 42 completed the CRBS a second time thereafter. Factor analysis revealed four factors, consistent with other CRBS translations. Internal reliability was acceptable for all but one factor (Cronbach’s alpha range = 0.44–0.77). Mean total barrier scores were significantly higher in non-enrollers (p < 0.001), decreased from first and second administration in these enrollers (p < 0.001), and were lower in CR completers (p < 0.001), supporting criterion validity. There were also significant differences in barrier scores by education, geography, tobacco use, among other variables, further supporting validity. The biggest barriers to enrolment were distance, work responsibilities, lack of time, transportation problems, and comorbidities; and the greatest barriers to adherence were distance and travel. Several items were considered irrelevant at first and second administration. Other barriers included wearing a mask during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study demonstrated sufficient validity and reliability of CRBS-CZE, which supports its use in future research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
Mpho D. Magau ◽  
Gerhard Roodt ◽  
Gerhardus Van Zyl

Orientation: Intellectual capital disclosure (ICD) including structural capital (SC), human capital (HC), and relational capital (RC) of non-financial information creates a shareholder value. Conflicting evidence on this voluntary disclosure suggests the need to develop an ICD measurement scale for reducing information asymmetry in the annual financial reporting.Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to develop a multi-dimensional measurement scale consisting of groups of items for critically examining the extent of ICD in the corporate annual reports or integrated reports to build investor confidence.Motivation for the study: The lack of voluntary disclosure on intellectual capital (IC) increases information asymmetry and negatively affects investor decision-making. An ICD measurement scale is expected to facilitate the reliable extraction of non-financial information from the annual reports or integrated reports.Research approach/design and method: A quantitative cross-sectional study was used with an ICD measurement scale for extracting information from 150 annual reports of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) listed companies. The measurement scale was subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA).Main findings: The ICD measurement scale yielded one factor structures across all three dimensions with internal reliability statistics (Cronbach alphas) of SC (0.849), HC (0.806) and RC (0.749), after the second level factor analysis.Practical/managerial implications: The ICD measurement scale will enable the market participants to understand how non-financial information can be extracted reliably from the annual reports and use to assess the value of intangible assets.Contribution/value-add: The novel contribution of the study is the construction of a measurement scale for assessing ICD.

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