Maximum Current
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Serena Blyth Lee ◽  
Fan Zhang ◽  
Charles James Lemckert ◽  
Rodger Tomlinson

Understanding coastal circulation and how it may alter in the future is important in island settings, especially in the South West Pacific, where communities rely heavily upon marine resources, and where sea level rise (SLR) is higher than the global average. In this study we explore the use of an unstructured-mesh finite-volume modelling approach to assist in filling the knowledge gaps with respect to coastal circulation in remote island locations—selecting the Vanuatu and New Caledonia archipelagos as our example study site. Past limited observations and modelling studies are leveraged to construct and verify a regional/coastal ocean model based on the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). Following verification with respect to tidal behaviour, we investigate how changes in wind speed and direction, and SLR, alter coastal water levels and coastal currents. Results showed tidal residual circulation was typically associated with flow separation at headlands and islands. Trade winds had negligible effect on water levels at the coast, however, wind-residual circulation was sensitive to both wind speed and direction. Wind-residual currents were typically strongest close to coastlines. Wind residual circulation patterns were strongly influenced by Ekman flow, while island blocking, topographic steering and geostrophic currents also appear to influence current patterns. Tidal amplitudes and phases were unchanged due to SLR of up to 2 m, while maximum current speeds altered by as much as 20 cm/s within some coastal embayments. Non-linear relationships between SLR and maximum current speeds were seen at some coastal reef platform sites. Under higher sea levels, tidal residual currents altered by less than ±2 cm/s which is relatively significant given maximum tidal residual current speeds are typically below 10 cm/s. Our findings indicate that under higher sea levels, coastal processes governing sediment transport, pollutant dispersal and larval transport are likely to alter, which may have implications for coastal environments and ecosystems. Given winds influence coastal circulation and subsequent coastal processes, changes in trade winds due to climate change may act to further alter coastal processes. It is felt that the current modelling approach can be applied to other regions to help fill critical knowledge gaps.

Takashi Fujikawa ◽  
Yoshitoshi Ogura ◽  
Koki Ishigami ◽  
Yoshihiro Kawano ◽  
Miyuki Nagamine ◽  

Abstract Geobacter sulfurreducens produces high current densities and it has been used as a model organism for extracellular electron transfer studies. Nine G. sulfurreducens strains were isolated from biofilms formed on an anode poised at –0.2 V (vs. SHE) in a bioelectrochemical system in which river sediment was used as an inoculum. The maximum current density of an isolate, strain YM18 (9.29 A/m2), was higher than that of the strains PCA (5.72 A/m2), the type strain of G. sulfurreducens, and comparable to strain KN400 (8.38 A/m2), which is another high current producing strain of G. sulfurreducens. Genomic comparison of strains PCA, KN400, and YM18 revealed that omcB, xapD, spc, and ompJ, which are known to be important genes for iron reduction and current production in PCA, were not present in YM18. In the PCA and KN400 genomes, two and one region (s) encoding CRISPR/Cas systems were identified, respectively, but they were missing in the YM18 genome. These results indicate that there is genetic variation in the key components involved in extracellular electron transfer among G. sulfurreducens strains.

2021 ◽  
Vol 78 (3) ◽  
pp. 61-70
B.М. Useinov ◽  
A.A. Solodovnik ◽  
S.K. Zhumabayeva ◽  

Based on the physical analysis of the processes occurring in pulsed plasma accelerators, the pos­sibility of their use for the creation and study of a plasma focus is justified. In particular, the influence of inductance on the parameters of the plasma focus in kilojoule­range «Plasma focus» (PF) installations created on the basis of a pulsed coaxial accelerator is studied. An equivalent installation scheme is proposed and justified, based on the analysis of which the influence of the inductance of the circuit and the capacitance of the capacitor bank on the value of the maximum current and neutron output is analyzed, without taking into account the parameters of the spark gap and the conducting wires. Based on the theoretical estimate of the inductance of the installation, its most probable value is calculated. . It turned out that in the installations of the considered energy range, the inductance is approximately 7.5•10­7 Gn and depends on the capacitance of the capacitor bank. On the contrary, in installations with megajoule energy, the inductance does not depend on the number and capacity of capacitors, so that an increase in the latter does not affect the increase in current strength. Experimental and theoretical dependences of the discharge current on the applied voltage at different capacitances of the capacitor bank are obtained. A comparative analysis of theoretical and experimental current waveforms is pre­sented. The greatest coincidence of theoretical and experimental results was found for the duration of the discharge pulse T = 30 microseconds.

2021 ◽  
Asim Ali Yaqoob ◽  
Claudia Guerrero–Barajas ◽  
Mohamad Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim ◽  
Khalid Umar ◽  
Amira Suriaty Yaakop

Abstract The present work focused on the utilization of three local wastes i.e., rambutan (nephelium lappaceum), langsat (lansium parasiticum) and mango (mangifera indica) wastes as organic substrates in benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFC) to reduce the cadmium and lead concentrations from synthetic wastewater. Out of the three wastes, the mango waste promoted a maximum current density (87.71 mA/m2) along with 78 % and 80 % removal efficiencies for Cd2+ and Pb2+, respectively. The bacterial identification proved that Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter were responsible for metals removals and energy generation. Lastly, the BMFC mechanism, challenges and future recommendations are enclosed.

2021 ◽  
Maha Tariq ◽  
Naveed Afzal ◽  
Mohsin Rafique

Abstract This study demonstrates an improvement in the photodetection response of a Cupric Oxide (CuO) thin film through the annealing process. The CuO thin film (400 nm thickness) was deposited on a silicon substrate using DC magnetron sputtering system. Annealing of the as-deposited film was carried out in a muffle furnace at 400 and 500 oC for two hours. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed the formation of a single phase CuO film whose crystallinity improved with increase of the annealing temperature. The field emission scanning electron microscopy indicated a compact and fine granular strcutre of the as-seposited film whereas the segregation and agglomeration of grains was observed after the film’s annealing. The photodetection performance of CuO film with Al contacts was investigated under the exposure of visible light (λ = 460 nm). The current-voltage graphs of as-deposited and annealed films displayed Schottky contact formation between the metal and semiconductor, owing to a lower work function of Al than that of the CuO. The photo-to-dark current ratio of the device was significantly enhanced after the film’s annealing. The increase in photocurrent became more pronounced upon increasing the light intensity from 58.4 to 511 µW/cm2. The maximum current gain and sensitivity values were found to be 66 and 7086.8 % respectively at 10V bias for the film annealed at 500 oC. The rise and fall time of the Al/CuO/Al photodetector was decreased after the film’s annealing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Wen-bo Chen ◽  
Yu-xiang Wang ◽  
Hong-gang Wang ◽  
Di An ◽  
Dan Sun ◽  

AbstractTo understand the role of intracellular zinc ion (Zn2+) dysregulation in mediating age-related neurodegenerative changes, particularly neurotoxicity resulting from the generation of excessive neurotoxic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, this study aimed to investigate whether N, N, N′, N′-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), a Zn2+-specific chelator, could attenuate Aβ25–35-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying electrophysiological mechanism. We used the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay to measure the viability of hippocampal neurons and performed single-cell confocal imaging to detect the concentration of Zn2+ in these neurons. Furthermore, we used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to detect the evoked repetitive action potential (APs), the voltage-gated sodium and potassium (K+) channels of primary hippocampal neurons. The analysis showed that TPEN attenuated Aβ25–35-induced neuronal death, reversed the Aβ25–35-induced increase in intracellular Zn2+ concentration and the frequency of APs, inhibited the increase in the maximum current density of voltage-activated sodium channel currents induced by Aβ25–35, relieved the Aβ25–35-induced decrease in the peak amplitude of transient outward K+ currents (IA) and outward-delayed rectifier K+ currents (IDR) at different membrane potentials, and suppressed the steady-state activation and inactivation curves of IA shifted toward the hyperpolarization direction caused by Aβ25–35. These results suggest that Aβ25–35-induced neuronal damage correlated with Zn2+ dysregulation mediated the electrophysiological changes in the voltage-gated sodium and K+ channels. Moreover, Zn2+-specific chelator-TPEN attenuated Aβ25–35-induced neuronal damage by recovering the intracellular Zn2+ concentration.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (2) ◽  
pp. 52-58
Marcelinus Christwardana ◽  
Linda Aliffia Yoshi ◽  
J. Joelianingsih

This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing bioelectricity utilizing yeast microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology with sugarcane bagasse juice as a substrate. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was employed as a bio-catalyst in the production of electrical energy. Sugarcane bagasse juice can be used as a substrate in MFC yeast because of its relatively high sugar content. When yeast was used as a biocatalyst, and Yeast Extract, Peptone, D-Glucose (YPD) Medium was used as a substrate in the MFC in the acclimatization process, current density increased over time to reach 171.43 mA/m2 in closed circuit voltage (CCV), maximum power density (MPD) reached 13.38 mW/m2 after 21 days of the acclimatization process. When using sugarcane bagasse juice as a substrate, MPD reached 6.44 mW/m2 with a sugar concentration of about 5230 ppm. Whereas the sensitivity, maximum current density (Jmax), and apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (𝐾𝑚𝑎𝑝𝑝) from the Michaelis-Menten plot were 0.01474 mA/(m2.ppm), 263.76 mA/m2, and 13594 ppm, respectively. These results indicate that bioelectricity can be produced from sugarcane bagasse juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Keywords: biomass valorization, biofuel cell, acclimatization, maximum power density, Michaelis-Menten constant

2021 ◽  
pp. 2239-2249
Osama J. Mohammed ◽  
Ali M. Abed ◽  
Mohammed A. Alnuaimi

      Electrical resistivity methods are one of the powerful methods for the detection and evaluation of shallower geophysical properties. This method was carried out at Hit area, western Iraq, in two stages; the first stage involved the use of 1Dimensional Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique in three stations using Schlumberger array with maximum current electrodes of 50m. The second stage included the employment of two dimension (2D) resistivity imaging technique using dipole-dipole array with a-spacing of 4m and n-factor of 6 in two stations. The 1D survey showed good results in delineating contaminated and clear zones that have high resistivity contrast. Near the main contaminated spring, the 2D resistivity imaging technique was applied in four sections length (100 m) using a dipole-dipole array position coincided with the three points VES. We compared the results of the interpretation of imaging the techniques 2D and VES. We found that the 2D imaging resistivity technique was better than VES survey in determining the distribution of pollution under the surface in the area surveyed. It was also found that the polluted water is located about 5 m below the surface. The largest amount of leakage was found towards the northeast and coincided with the direction of the groundwater movement. Spring water has leaked from outside the region through the Kubaisah area. Most of this water is contained in quaternary deposits and karst gypsum fractures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (3) ◽  
pp. 167-176
Ki-Chai Kim ◽  
Jong-Woo Kim ◽  
Jae-Yong Kwon ◽  
No-Weon Kang

This paper presents a non-contact method for the detection of surface cracks in metal materials through a forced-resonance microwave method (FRMM) using a cutoff cavity-backed narrow slot as a crack detection probe without using a vector network analyzer (VNA) at microwave frequencies. The FRMM uses the deviations in the ammeter or voltmeter readings of the forcefully obtained resonance of a cutoff-cavity probe for a metal material with or without cracks. The cutoff cavity-backed narrow slot on metal with no cracks produces a series resonance (maximum current) or a parallel resonance through an external control element located on a post inside the cutoff cavity. Cracks were detected by a change in this forced-resonance state (maximum current) when the cutoff-cavity probe was scanned over a crack. The characteristic crack signal was derived from the resonance current deviation on the ammeter located on a post inside the cavity probe. Galerkin’s method of moments was used to obtain a forced-resonance state from which the crack signal of the FRMM was calculated. The experimental measurements for non-contact (remote or lift-off) crack detection are also presented.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (15) ◽  
pp. 6920
Oldřich Coufal

Two infinitely long parallel conductors of arbitrary cross section connected to a voltage source form a loop. If the source voltage depends on time, then due to induction there is no constant current density in the loop conductors. It is only recently that a method has been published for accurately calculating current density in a group of long parallel conductors. The method has thus far been applied to the calculation of steady-state current density in a loop connected to a sinusoidal voltage source. In the present article, the method is used for an accurate calculation of transient current using transient current density. The transient current is analysed when connecting and short-circuiting the sources of sinusoidal, constant and sawtooth voltages. For circular cross section conductors, the dependences of maximum current density, maximum current and the time of achieving steady state on the source frequency, the distance of the conductors and their resistivity when connecting the source of sinusoidal voltage are examined.

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