tumor stages
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Luca Hladek ◽  
Katrin Bankov ◽  
Jens von der Grün ◽  
Natalie Filmann ◽  
Melanie Demes ◽  

AbstractPenile squamous cell carcinomas are rare tumor entities throughout Europe. Early lymphonodal spread urges for aggressive therapeutic approaches in advanced tumor stages. Therefore, understanding tumor biology and its microenvironment and correlation with known survival data is of substantial interest in order to establish treatment strategies adapted to the individual patient. Fifty-five therapy naïve squamous cell carcinomas, age range between 41 and 85 years with known clinicopathological data, were investigated with the use of tissue microarrays (TMA) regarding the tumor-associated immune cell infiltrate density (ICID). Slides were stained with antibodies against CD3, CD8 and CD20. An image analysis software was applied for evaluation. Data were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival. There was a significant increase of ICID in squamous cell carcinomas of the penis in relation to tumor adjacent physiological tissue. Higher CD3-positive ICID was significantly associated with lower tumor stage in our cohort. The ICID was not associated with overall survival. Our data sharpens the view on tumor-associated immune cell infiltrate in penile squamous cell carcinomas with an unbiased digital and automated cell count. Further investigations on the immune cell infiltrate and its prognostic and possible therapeutic impact are needed.

2022 ◽  
Aurora Campo ◽  
Francisco Fernandez-Flores ◽  
Marti Pumarola

Background and objective: Glial fibrillar acid protein is a common marker for brain tumor because of its particular rearrangement during tumor development. It is commonly used in manually histological glioma detection and grading. An automatic pipeline for tumor diagnosis based on GFAP is proposed in the present manuscript for detecting and grading canine brain glioma in stages III and IV. Methods: The study was performed on canine brain tumor stages III and IV as well as healthy tissue immunohistochemically stained for gliofibrillar astroglial protein. Four stereological indexes were developed using the area of the image as reference unit: density of glioma protein, density of neuropil, density of astrocytes and the glioma nuclei number density. Images of the slides were subset for image analysis (n=1415) and indexed. The stereological indexes of each subset constituted an array of data describing the tumor phase of the subset. A 5% of these arrays were used as training set for decision tree classification with PCA. The other arrays were further classified in a supervised approach. ANOVA and PCA analysis were applied to the indexes. Results: The final pipeline is able to detect brain tumor and to grade it automatically. Added to it, the role the neuropil during tumor development has been quantified for the first time. While astroglial cells tend to disappear, glioma cells invade all the tumor area almost to a saturation in stage III before reducing the density in stage IV. The density of the neuropil is reduced during the tumour growth. Conclusions: The method validated ere allows the automated diagnosis and grading of glioma in dogs. This method opens the research of the role of the neuropil in tumor development.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 291
Anne Hendricks ◽  
Sophie Müller ◽  
Martin Fassnacht ◽  
Christoph-Thomas Germer ◽  
Verena A. Wiegering ◽  

(1) Background: Locoregional lymphadenectomy (LND) in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) may impact oncological outcome, but the findings from individual studies are conflicting. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the oncological value of LND in ACC by summarizing the available literature. (2) Methods: A systematic search on studies published until December 2020 was performed according to the PRISMA statement. The primary outcome was the impact of lymphadenectomy on overall survival (OS). Two separate meta-analyses were performed for studies including patients with localized ACC (stage I–III) and those including all tumor stages (I–IV). Secondary endpoints included postoperative mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS). (3) Results: 11 publications were identified for inclusion. All studies were retrospective studies, published between 2001–2020, and 5 were included in the meta-analysis. Three studies (N = 807 patients) reported the impact of LND on disease-specific survival in patients with stage I–III ACC and revealed a survival benefit of LND (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.42, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.26–0.68). Based on results of studies including patients with ACC stage I–IV (2 studies, N = 3934 patients), LND was not associated with a survival benefit (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.70–1.42). None of the included studies showed an association between LND and postoperative mortality or LOS. (4) Conclusion: Locoregional lymphadenectomy seems to offer an oncologic benefit in patients undergoing curative-intended surgery for localized ACC (stage I–III).

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yongchun Wang ◽  
Zhixiong Li ◽  
Zhijie Huang ◽  
Xingjuan Yu ◽  
Limin Zheng ◽  

BackgroundC-reactive protein (CRP) is a widely used marker of systemic inflammation and predicts poor clinical outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, its significance in the local immune response at the tumor site is not clear.MethodsSerum CRP levels of 329 HCC patients were detected before resection. Paired paraffin-embedded tumor samples were used to quantify immune cell populations, such as CD11b+ myeloid cells, CD68+ macrophages (Mφs), CD15+ neutrophils, CD8+ T cells, and CD206+, CD204+, CD163+ and CD169+ Mφs, by immunohistochemistry. Enrichment scores for 34 types of immune cells based on transcriptome data from 24 HCC samples were calculated by xCell. Overall survival of patients was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method.ResultsSerum CRP levels were correlated with liver functions and tumor stages in patients with HCC. The densities of CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and CD15+ tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) were significantly higher in patients with elevated serum CRP levels than in those with low CRP levels (both p < 0.0001). Further analysis of TAM subtypes revealed that serum CRP levels were associated with CD204+ and CD163+ Mφ densities (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0003, respectively). Moreover, transcriptome data showed that CRP expression was associated with the expression of myeloid cell infiltration-related genes in HCC tumors. The combination of serum CRP with TAMs or TANs in both the nontumor and intratumor regions could represent a powerful criterion for predicting patient prognoses.ConclusionSerum CRP could serve as an indicator of an immunosuppressive TME in HCC, which could be of potential clinical application for treatment strategies targeting the TME.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Qian Chen ◽  
Zhen Yang ◽  
Hongjian Ding ◽  
Huaqing Li ◽  
Weiyu Wang ◽  

Numerous studies reveal that circular RNAs (circRNAs) affect cancer progression. CircWHSC1 is a novel circRNA that accelerates ovarian cancer progression. Nevertheless, the function of circWHSC1 in regulating breast cancer (BC) is elusive. Here, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was carried out to detect the profiles of circWHSC1 and miR-195-5p in BC tissues and corresponding non-tumor tissues. Gain- and loss-of-function assays were implemented both in vivo and ex vivo to verify the significance of circWHSC1 in BC development. BC cell proliferation was estimated by the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and BrdU assays. Transwell assay was implemented to test BC cell migration and invasion. The protein levels of FASN, AMPK and mTOR were determined by Western blot. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was performed to examine Ki67 and FASN expression. As shown by the result, circWHSC1 was up-regulated in BC tissues versus adjacent non-tumor tissues. circWHSC1 overexpression was correlated with higher tumor stages, lymphatic metastasis and worse survival of BC patients. Functionally, overexpressing circWHSC1 amplified proliferation, migration and invasion of BC cell lines and boosted xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Bioinformatics uncovered that circWHSC1 functioned as a competitive endogenous RNA by sponging miR-195-5p, which was further corroborated by the dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation. miR-195-5p delayed BC progression, which was dampened by circWHSC1 up-regulation. Fatty acid synthase (FASN) was affirmed as a direct target of miR-195-5p. miR-195-5p overexpression curbed FASN expression and activated its downstream AMPK pathway. Inhibition of FASN or activation of the AMPK pathway reversed circWHSC1-mediated oncogenic effects. Collectively, CircWHSC1 acted as an oncogene to expedite BC evolvement by modulating the miR-195-5p/FASN/AMPK/mTOR pathway.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 6352
Milena Perrone ◽  
Giovanna Talarico ◽  
Claudia Chiodoni ◽  
Sabina Sangaletti

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a high degree of diversity among and within tumors, and in relation to its different tumor microenvironment. Compared to other oncotypes, such as melanoma or lung cancer, breast cancer is considered a “cold” tumor, characterized by low T lymphocyte infiltration and low tumor mutational burden. However, more recent evidence argues against this idea and indicates that, at least for specific molecular breast cancer subtypes, the immune infiltrate may be clinically relevant and heterogeneous, with significant variations in its stromal cell/protein composition across patients and tumor stages. High numbers of tumor-infiltrating T cells are most frequent in HER2-positive and basal-like molecular subtypes and are generally associated with a good prognosis and response to therapies. However, effector immune infiltrates show protective immunity in some cancers but not in others. This could depend on one or more immunosuppressive mechanisms acting alone or in concert. Some of them might include, in addition to immune cells, other tumor microenvironment determinants such as the extracellular matrix composition and stiffness as well as stromal cells, like fibroblasts and adipocytes, that may prevent cytotoxic T cells from infiltrating the tumor microenvironment or may inactivate their antitumor functions. This review will summarize the state of the different immune tumor microenvironment determinants affecting HER2+ breast tumor progression, their response to treatment, and how they are modified by different therapeutic approaches. Potential targets within the immune tumor microenvironment will also be discussed.

Metabolites ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 859
Jonathan A. Chacon-Barahona ◽  
Ivan A. Salladay-Perez ◽  
Nathan James Lanning

The ability to detect and respond to hypoxia within a developing tumor appears to be a common feature amongst most cancers. This hypoxic response has many molecular drivers, but none as widely studied as Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1). Recent evidence suggests that HIF-1 biology within lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) may be associated with expression levels of adenylate kinases (AKs). Using LUAD patient transcriptome data, we sought to characterize AK gene signatures related to lung cancer hallmarks, such as hypoxia and metabolic reprogramming, to identify conserved biological themes across LUAD tumor progression. Transcriptomic analysis revealed perturbation of HIF-1 targets to correlate with altered expression of most AKs, with AK4 having the strongest correlation. Enrichment analysis of LUAD tumor AK4 gene signatures predicts signatures involved in pyrimidine, and by extension, nucleotide metabolism across all LUAD tumor stages. To further discriminate potential drivers of LUAD tumor progression within AK4 gene signatures, partial least squares discriminant analysis was used at LUAD stage-stage interfaces, identifying candidate genes that may promote LUAD tumor growth or regression. Collectively, these results characterize regulatory gene networks associated with the expression of all nine human AKs that may contribute to underlying metabolic perturbations within LUAD and reveal potential mechanistic insight into the complementary role of AK4 in LUAD tumor development.

Bok Sil Hong

AbstractPhysical activity and exercise can induce beneficial molecular and biological regulations that have been associated with an incidence of various diseases, including breast cancer. Recent studies demonstrated that the potential links between physical activity-induced circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) and cancer risk and progression. Here, we investigated whether altered miRNAs by exercise could influence breast cancer progression. After primary searching in PubMed and reviewing the full-text papers, candidate miRNAs altered by exercise in breast cancer were identified. Analysis of expression profiles and clinical outcomes of altered miRNAs using The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets showed altered miRNAs expressions were significantly associated with the patient's prognosis, whereas prognostic values of each miRNA varied in different stages and subtypes. In addition, altered miRNAs profiles regulated various target genes and key signaling pathways in tumorigenesis, including pathways in cancer and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway; however, miRNAs regulated the expression of target genes differently according to tumor stages and subtypes. These results indicate that circulating miRNAs are promising noninvasive stable biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring the response to clinical therapies of breast cancer. Moreover, stages and subtype-stratified approaches for breast cancer progression would be needed to evaluate the prognostic value of miRNAs for biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

2021 ◽  
Yang Zhao ◽  
Cangang Zhang ◽  
Yanan Zhu ◽  
Xi Ding ◽  
Yikun Zhou ◽  

The immunosuppressive microenvironment is associated with poor prognosis in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC); however, the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. Among triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell (TREM) family, we found that TREM1 expression in PTC was significantly higher than that in normal tissues. TREM1 overexpression was associated with BRAFV600E profiles and advanced tumor stages. Furthermore, TREM1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with promoter methylation status. Specifically, hypomethylation of CpG site cg06196379 in the TREM1 promoter was related with poor patient disease free survival (DFS) and a high PTC recurrence rate. Mechanistically, TREM1 was mainly expressed in malignant epithelial cells but not macrophages in PTC by single-cell analysis. PTC tissues with high TREM1 levels had enhanced infiltration of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and decreased infiltration of CD8+ T cells. Our study confirms that hypomethylation-mediated overexpression of TREM1 in PTC cells promotes an immunosuppressive microenvironment by enhancing Treg infiltration. We recommend the future use of therapeutic strategy targeting TREM1 for the treatment of PTC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Haoxiang Zhang ◽  
Chenggang Gao ◽  
Jiaoshun Chen ◽  
Shihong Wu ◽  
Jianwei Bai ◽  

Abstract Background The current guidelines of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) for the staging of exocrine pancreatic tumors seem inapplicable to malignant pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). Therefore, we aimed to improve the accuracy of clinical staging and prognosis for malignant IPMN by modifiing current AJCC system. Methods We extracted data of 2001 patients with malignant IPMN from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database between 2000 and 2016. Of these, 1401 patients were assigned to the primary cohort and 600 patients to the validation cohort. Results In Kaplan–Meier analysis of the primary cohort, the current AJCC guidelines were unable to distinguish between certain tumor substages (IA and IB in the 7th, IB and IIA in the 8th). The modified system that we regrouped based on the median overall survival and hazard ratios, was superior in tumor stage classifications. Age > 70 years, tumors located in the body or tail, high-grade differentiated tumors, surgery, chemotherapy, and tumor, lymph node, and metastasis (TNM) stage were identified as independent predictive factors for overall survival. Compared to that of TNM-based systems, the concordance index of the clinical predictive nomogram significantly improved (0.819; 95% confidence interval, 0.805–0.833), with excellent area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (1-, 3-, and 5-year: 0.881, 0.889, and 0.879, respectively). The calibration curves also showed good agreement between prediction and actual observation. The analysis of treatment modalities revealed that surgery resulted in better survival for all resectable malignant IPMN. The analysis of chemotherapy data reveals its potential in improving the prognosis of treatment for patients with locally advanced or distant metastases. Conclusions Our modified staging system improves the distinction of tumor stages. The nomogram was a more accurate and clinically reliable tool for prognosis prediction of patients with malignant IPMN.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document