syringic acid
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2022 ◽  

Abstract A number of methods have been applied to measure total antioxidant capacity (TAC), including FRAP, which is based on reducing the amount of iron ions in a complex compound. Researchers often use measurement of absorbance 10 min after mixing a sample with the FRAP reaction solution to calculate TAC. The FRAP solution has been shown to alter absorbance over time by ca 0.0010–0.0020 per hour, under storage conditions. This article intends to show that some substances do not fully or sufficiently react within the common analysis period. It is evident from the results that some substances react more quickly and others very slowly. Absorbance in relation to various phenols was measured. Compared to the levels of absorbance at 10 min, mean absorbance at 48 h was higher by 5,395% for vanillin, 426% for caffeic acid, 170% for sinapinic acid, 67% for gallic acid, 19% for syringic acid, and only by 4% for Trolox. Results for vanillin and caffeic acid indicate potential auto-catalysis.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 310
Vimbainashe E. Manhivi ◽  
Retha M. Slabbert ◽  
Dharini Sivakumar

This study investigated the effect of co-ingesting Natal plums (Carissa macrocarpa) and Marula nuts (Sclerocarya birrea) on the bioaccessibility and uptake of anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, and the ability to inhibit α-glucosidase. A Natal plum–Marula nut bar was made by mixing the raw nuts and the fruit pulp in a ratio 1:1 (v/v). The cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside (Cy-3-Sa) and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside content (Cy-3-G) were quantified using the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS). Inclusion of Natal plum in the Marula nut bar increased the Cy-3-Sa, Cy-3-G content, antioxidants capacity and α-glucosidase inhibition compared to ingesting Marula nut separately at the internal phase. Adding Natal plum to the Marula nut bar increased bioaccessibility of Cy-3-Sa, Cy-3-G, quercetin, coumaric acid, syringic acid and ferulic acid to 80.2% and 71.9%, 98.7%, 95.2%, 51.9% and 89.3%, respectively, compared to ingesting the Natal plum fruit or nut separately.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 279
Alba Espina ◽  
Santiago Sanchez-Cortes ◽  
Zuzana Jurašeková

FT-Raman, FTIR, and SERS spectra of the structurally related gallnut polyphenols tannic acid, gallic acid, pyrogallol, and syringic acid are reported in this work aiming at performing a comparative assignation of the bands and finding specific marker features that can identify these compounds in complex polyphenol mixtures. Tannic and gallic acids are the principal components in oak gallnuts, and they can be found in iron gall inks. The different functional groups existing in these molecules and their spatial distribution lead to slight changes of the vibrations. The Raman spectra are dominated by bands corresponding to the ring vibrations, but the substituents in the ring strongly affect these vibrations. In contrast, the FTIR spectra of these molecules are dominated by the peripheral oxygen-containing substituents of the aromatic ring and afford complementary information. SERS spectroscopy can be used to analyze trace amounts of these compounds, but the spectra of these polyphenols show strong changes in comparison with the Raman spectra, indicating a strong interaction with the metal. The most significant modification observed in the SERS spectra of these compounds is the weakening of the benzene 8a ring vibration and the subsequent intensification of the 19a mode of the benzene ring. This mode is also more intense in the FTIR spectra, and its intensification in the SERS spectra could be related to a drastic change in the molecular polarizability associated with the interaction of the polyphenol with the metal in Ag NPs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (6) ◽  
Daniel Felipe Toro Suárez ◽  
Luciana Leite de Andrade Lima ◽  
Thayza Christina Montenegro Stamford ◽  
Dayanne Consuelo da Silva ◽  
Tiago Gomes Santos ◽  

ABSTRACT: This study developed a palatable, acceptable, and functional mixed juice of pineapple (Ananas comosus var. Comosus), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa degener), and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), with enhanced bioactive and prebiotic compounds. The ideal proportion of fruit and yacon was derived after planning a mixture with six formulations and by evaluating their bioactive compounds and organic acid profile. The best formulation sensory evaluation was performed by the Just-About-Right test (JAR) and global acceptance. The chosen mixed juice (M6 - 30% pineapple, 45% passion fruit, and 30% yacon) presented results that showed elevated levels of antioxidant activity (82.5% DPPH* inhibition), carotenoids (0.97 mg.100g-1), and total polyphenols (70.28 mg.100g-1). Total flavonols (23.95 mg.100g-1), total anthocyanins (1.37 mg.100g-1), gallic acid (3.13 μg.mL-1), quercetin (2.25 μg.mL-1), syringic acid (1.01 μg.mL-1), citric acid (949.30 mg.100g-1), malic acid (140.35 mg.100g-1), and 0.58% of dietary fiber were also reported. Sensorially, consumers perceived high acidity, strong flavor, and a fibrous texture, which might have affected the global acceptance of the juice (6.0). Results indicated the feasibility of obtaining a functional and palatable mixed juice using yacon.

2022 ◽  
Vol 769 ◽  
pp. 136385
Irmak Ferah Okkay ◽  
Ufuk Okkay ◽  
Omer Lutfi Gundogdu ◽  
Cemil Bayram ◽  
Ali Sefa Mendil ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 485-494
Bilal Ahmad Khan ◽  
Rizwan Maqbool ◽  
Sumbal Parvez ◽  
Muhammad Ather Nadeem

Crop plants release biochemicals into surrounding environment that help in obtaining maximum yield of crop by acting bioherbicide at high concentration and plant growth hormone at low concentration. Therefore, this study was planned at Department of Agronomy in Weed Science Laboratory, University of Agriculture Faisalabad during Winter 2018 to evaluate the hermetic effects of Cinnamomum verum (Dalchini) on vegetable crop Radish (Raphanus sativus) and determination and quantification Phenolic compound present in aqueous extract of bark of C. verum. The experiments were laid out under completely randomized design (CRD) having three replications. The aqueous extracts of C. verum was used on radish seeds at different concentrations (2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 80%). Data regarding seed germination and seedling growth (shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root dry weigh) of radish were recorded following standard procedures. Results of our study revealed that at higher concentration act as bioherbicide and produced inhibitory effects on R. sativus while at low concentration it shows hermetic effect and promoted the seedling growth. aqueous extract showed concentration. Among different Phenolic compound (Syringic acid, p-crumeic, Ferulic acid, Quercetion and Gallic acid) determine in aqueous extract of barck of C. verum Maximum Quercetion (12.3 %) and minimum Syringic acid (0.60 %) was found. Therefore, it was concluded from this study that aqueous extract of C. verum can be used as bioherbicides at higher concentration to control weed while at low concentration as plant growth regulator.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 235
Zdenek Rihak ◽  
Bozena Prusova ◽  
Michal Kumsta ◽  
Mojmir Baron

This paper evaluates the effect of must hyperoxygenation on final wine. Lower concentrations of caftaric acid (0.29 mg·L−1), coutaric acid (1.37 mg·L−1) and Catechin (0.86 mg·L−1) were observed in hyperoxygenated must in contrast to control must (caftaric acid 32.78 mg·L−1, coutaric acid 5.01 mg·L−1 and Catechin 4.45 mg·L−1). In the final wine, hydroxybenzoic acids were found in higher concentrations in the control variant (gallic acid 2.58 mg·L−1, protocatechuic acid 1.02 mg·L−1, vanillic acid 2.05 mg·L−1, syringic acid 2.10 mg·L−1) than in the hyperoxygenated variant (2.01 mg·L−1, 0.86 mg·L−1, 0.98 mg·L−1 and 1.50 mg·L−1 respectively). Higher concentrations of total flavanols (2 mg·L−1 in hyperoxygenated must and 21 mg·L−1 in control must; 7.5 mg·L−1 in hyperoxygenated wine and 19.8 mg·L−1 in control wine) and polyphenols (97 mg·L−1 in hyperoxygenated must and 249 mg·L−1 in control must; 171 mg·L−1 in hyperoxygenated wine and 240 mg·L−1 in control wine) were found in both the must and the control wine. A total of 24 volatiles were determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Statistical differences were achieved for isobutyl alcohol (26.33 mg·L−1 in control wine and 32.84 mg·L−1 in hyperoxygenated wine), or 1-propanol (7.28 mg·L−1 in control wine and 8.51 mg·L−1 in hyperoxygenated wine), while esters such as isoamyl acetate (1534.41 µg·L−1 in control wine and 698.67 µg·L−1 in hyperoxygenated wine), 1-hexyl acetate (136.32 µg·L−1 in control wine and 71.67 µg·L−1 in hyperoxygenated wine) and isobutyl acetate (73.88 µg·L−1 in control wine and 37.27 µg·L−1 in hyperoxygenated wine) had a statistically lower concentration.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Zahra Sabahi ◽  
Mohammad Javad Khoshnoud ◽  
Sara Hosseini ◽  
Fatemeh Khoshraftar ◽  
Marzieh Rashedinia

Objectives. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC) has become one of the serious complications in diabetic cases. In this study, we aimed to explore the syringic acid (SYR) protective effect against diabetes-induced cardiac injury in experimental rats. Methods. Rats were divided in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats which were subdivided into diabetic controls, and three test groups (SYR at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) and the nondiabetic group received 100 mg/kg of SYR. All treatments were given SYR for 6 weeks. SYR effects on cardiac diagnostic markers, heart lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, antioxidant system, and changes of the heart mitochondrial mass and biogenesis were measured. Results. Diabetes induction prompted CK-MB, LDH levels in serum, cardiac catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity, as well as cardiac TBARs and carbonylated protein. SYR administration (100 m/kg) attenuated CK-MB and LDH levels. Also, 50 and 100 mg/kg of SYR reduced cardiac TBARs and carbonylated protein in diabetic rats. These treatments did not show any effects on GSH content, mtDNA, and mitochondrial biogenesis indices (PGC1- α, NRF1, NRF2, and TFAM) in heart tissue. Conclusions. SYR treatment showed protective effects on diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats by reducing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation. The possible mechanisms could be related to antioxidant activity of this phenolic acid. SYR might play a role of a protective factor in cardiac challenges in diabetes.

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Tamás Hofmann ◽  
Roman Guran ◽  
Ondrej Zitka ◽  
Eszter Visi-Rajczi ◽  
Levente Albert

The present research focused on the analysis of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) wood polyphenols in respect to red heartwood formation, which is a significant color and technological defect of the species. For the first time, high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) were applied for the investigation of the structure and the radial distribution of polyphenols. Altogether 125 compounds were characterized by their MSn spectra, of which 71 were tentatively identified, including procyanidins (dimers to pentamers), flavonoids (taxifolin, naringenin, isorhamnetin, (epi)afzelechin), (+)-catechin, (–)-epicatechin) and their glycoside conjugates, phenolic acids (gallic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid) and their glycosides as well as gallic acid derivatives, many of which were identified for the first time in beech wood. It was found that the concentration of many compounds increased at the color boundary. In situ polyphenol synthesis and metabolism were clearly evidenced at the color boundary. Red heartwood contained only free aglycones (syringic acid, taxifolin, naringenin, isorhamnetin, naringenin, syringic acid). Contrary to earlier assumptions, the MALDI-TOF analysis did not indicate the presence of oxidized high-molecular-weight polymeric polyphenols in the red heartwood tissues. The role of individual compounds in the formation of the red heartwood chromophores are discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jinjin Pei ◽  
Periyannan Velu ◽  
Mohsen Zareian ◽  
Zili Feng ◽  
Annamalai Vijayalakshmi

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancer and deadly disease worldwide. Despite substantial advances made in the treatment of gastric cancer, existing therapies still encounter bottlenecks. Chemotherapy, for instance, could lead to serious side effects, high drug resistance and treatment failure. Phytochemical-derived compounds from plants offer novel strategies as potent drug molecules in cancer therapy. Given the low toxicity and higher tolerance rate of naturally occurring compounds, the present study evaluated the effects of syringic acid on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis, and inflammatory responses in gastric cancer cell line (AGS). AGS cells were treated with various concentrations (5–40 μg/mL) of syringic acid for 24 h, after which cytotoxicity was analyzed. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), antioxidant enzyme activities, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, Δψm), cell morphologies, the expression of apoptotic markers and protein expression patterns were also investigated. Results indicated that syringic acid-treated cells developed anti-cancer activities by losing MMP, cell viability, and enhancing intracellular ROS. Syringic acid selectively developed apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner via enhanced regulation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and Poly ADP-ribose Polymerase (PARP) whereas decreasing the expression levels of p53 and BCL-2. Syringic acid also lowered activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) whereas Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) increased. Syringic acid suppressed gastric cancer cell proliferation, inflammation, and induced apoptosis by upregulating mTOR via AKT signaling pathway. The study suggests syringic acid may constitute a promising chemotherapeutic candidate for gastric cancer treatment. Our study is the first report on the anti-cancer effects of syringic acid against gastric cancer cells via apoptosis, inhibition of inflammation, and the suppression of the mTOR/AKT signaling pathway.

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