Apoptotic Genes
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2022 ◽  
Mi-Jin An ◽  
Ji-Young Kim ◽  
Jinhong Park ◽  
Jinho Kim ◽  
Dae-Hyun Kim ◽  

Abstract Epigenetic alterations explained by the “loss of heterochromatin” model have been proposed as a universal mechanism of aging, but the region-specific changes of heterochromatin during aging are unclear. Here, we examine age-dependent transcriptomic profiling of mouse retinal neurons to identify epigenetic regulators involved in heterochromatin loss. RNA sequencing analysis revealed gradual down-regulation of Kdm3b during retinal aging. Disruption of Kdm3b (Kdm3b+/-) in 12-month-old mouse retina decreased the number of cone photoreceptors and changed the morphology of cone ribbon synapses. Integration of transcriptome profiling with epigenomic analysis demonstrated gain of heterochromatin feature in synapse assembly and vesicle transport genes via the accumulation of H3K9 mono- and di-methylation. However, the loss of heterochromatin in apoptotic genes exacerbated retinal neurodegeneration. We propose that this KDM3B-centered epigenomic network is crucial for maintaining cone photoreceptor homeostasis via the modulation of gene-set specific heterochromatin features during aging.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 194
Ciprian Nicolae Pilut ◽  
Aniko Manea ◽  
Ioana Macasoi ◽  
Amadeus Dobrescu ◽  
Doina Georgescu ◽  

In the field of oncology, the plant kingdom has an inexhaustible supply of bioactive compounds. Phytochemical compounds isolated from Helleborus species have been found to be useful in various chronic diseases. This has brought Helleborus to the attention of medical researchers. H. purpurascens is a plant characteristic of the Carpathian area, known since ancient times for its beneficial effects. The aim of the study was to evaluate the flavonoids composition of a hydroalcoholic extract of H. purpurascens, as well as to assess its antioxidant activity and antitumor potential at the level of two healthy cell lines and four tumor cell lines. In addition, the expression of the genes involved in the apoptotic process (Bcl-2, Bad, and Bax) were evaluated. The results indicated that the extract has a high concentration of flavonoids, such as epicatechin, quercetin, and kaempferol. The extract has an increased antioxidant activity, very similar to that of the standard, ascorbic acid and cytotoxic effects predominantly in the breast cancer cell line, being free of cytotoxic effects in healthy cell lines. Underlying the cytotoxic effect is the induction of the process of apoptosis, which in the present study was highlighted by decreasing the expression of anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl-2) and increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bad and Bax). In conclusion, the hydroalcoholic extract of H. purpurascens can be considered an important source for future medical applications in cancer therapy.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 293
Hesham Haffez ◽  
Shimaa Osman ◽  
Hassan Y. Ebrahim ◽  
Zeinab A. Hassan

In vitro anti-proliferative activity of Pinus palustris extract and its purified abietic acid was assessed against different human cancer cell lines (HepG-2, MCF-7 and HCT-116) compared to normal WI-38 cell line. Abietic acid showed more promising IC50 values against MCF-7 cells than pine extract (0.06 µg/mL and 0.11 µM, respectively), with insignificant cytotoxicity toward normal fibroblast WI-38 cells. Abietic acid triggered both G2/M cell arrest and subG0-G1 subpopulation in MCF-7, compared to SubG0-G1 subpopulation arrest only for the extract. It also induced overexpression of key apoptotic genes (Fas, FasL, Casp3, Casp8, Cyt-C and Bax) and downregulation of both proliferation (VEGF, IGFR1, TGF-β) and oncogenic (C-myc and NF-κB) genes. Additionally, abietic acid induced overexpression of cytochrome-C protein. Furthermore, it increased levels of total antioxidants to diminish carcinogenesis and chemotherapy resistance. P. palustris is a valuable source of active abietic acid, an antiproliferative agent to MCF-7 cells through induction of apoptosis with promising future anticancer agency in breast cancer therapy.

2022 ◽  
Anindita Mitra ◽  
Linh Vo ◽  
Imad Soukar ◽  
Ashlesha Chaubal ◽  
Miriam Greenberg ◽  

The SIN3 scaffolding protein is a conserved transcriptional regulator known to fine-tune gene expression. In Drosophila, there are two major isoforms of SIN3, SIN3 220 and SIN3 187, which each assemble into multi-subunit histone modifying complexes. The isoforms have distinct developmental expression patterns and non-redundant functions. Gene regulatory network analyses indicate that both isoforms affect genes encoding proteins in pathways such as the cell cycle and cell morphogenesis. Interestingly, the SIN3 187 isoform uniquely regulates a subset of pathways including post-embryonic development, phosphate metabolism and apoptosis. Target genes in the phosphate metabolism pathway include nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes coding for proteins responsible for oxidative phosphorylation, important for energy metabolism. Here, we investigate the role of SIN3 isoforms in regulating energy metabolism and cell survival genes. We find that ectopic expression of SIN3 187 represses expression of several nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes affecting production of ATP and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Forced expression of SIN3 187 also activates several pro-apoptotic and represses a few anti-apoptotic genes. In the SIN3 187 expressing cells, these gene expression patterns are accompanied with an increased sensitivity to paraquat-mediated oxidative stress. These findings indicate that SIN3 187 influences the regulation of mitochondrial function, apoptosis and oxidative stress response in ways that are dissimilar from SIN3 220. The data suggest that the distinct SIN3 histone modifying complexes are deployed in different cellular contexts to maintain cellular homeostasis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e2151
Mahshad Kalantari ◽  
Maliheh Entezari ◽  
Milad Ashrafizadeh ◽  
Abolfazl Movafagh ◽  
Kiavash Hushmandi

Background: Lung cancer is the fifth most common cancer in Iran. Due to the side effects of common cancer treatments, everyone has turned to herbal remedies and new treatments. This study aimed to compare the effect of S14161 small molecule and Glaucium flavum extract on the induction of apoptosis in A549 cancer cells. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the A549 cell line was treated with different concentrations of G. flavum and S14161 on days 1, 3, and 5. Also, half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50) for both G. flavum and S14161 were measured. In addition, the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was used to investigate the effects of S14161 and G. flavum extract on the expressions level of Bax, Bad, P53, and Bcl2 genes. Results: Results showed that both the combination of S14161 and G. flavum extract resulted in cell death and reduced cancer cell viability. Nevertheless, the viability rate was greater by S14161, and this small molecule significantly increased the expression of Bax, P53, and Bad apoptotic genes and decreased the expression of the Bcl2 gene, which shows the induced apoptotic death and lethal effect of S14161 in comparison with G. flavum extract. Conclusion: Our study showed that S14161 had fewer IC50 and caused cell death by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway, and G. flavum caused cancer cell death due to its alkaloid compounds. Therefore, both compounds are recommended as drug candidates for the treatment of lung cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (6) ◽  
pp. 3120-3128

The Epilobium species, rich in various active phytochemicals, have been widely used in folk medicine to treat several diseases including benign prostatic hyperplasia. Despite being demonstrated on some type of cancer cells such as prostate cancer, their potential anti-cancerous role on colorectal adenocarcinoma cells has not been studied yet. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), colon cancer is the third most common form of cancer, resulting over 800 000 deaths every year worldwide. The present study demonstrates the anti-cancerous activity of aqueous and ethanolic Epilobium parviflorum extracts in colon cancer cell line HT-29 cells in vitro. The both type of extracts reduced the cell viability of HT-29 cells in a dose dependent manner. Gene expression analysis of HT-29 cells demonstrated an increase at apoptotic genes, caspase 3 and caspase 8. Nuclear fragmentation of apoptotic cells was also demonstrated through TUNEL assay as well as immunostaining experiments. On the other hand, same lethal concentrations of E. parviflorum extracts were not profound on non-cancerous human fibroblast cell line BJ cells. Our results indicate that E. parviflorum may also be used as a therapeutic agent against colon cancers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. e202101285
Chester J Joyner ◽  
Ariel M Ley ◽  
Doan C Nguyen ◽  
Mohammad Ali ◽  
Alessia Corrado ◽  

Antibody secreting cells (ASCs) circulate after vaccination and infection and migrate to the BM where a subset known as long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs) persists and secrete antibodies for a lifetime. The mechanisms by which circulating ASCs become LLPCs are not well elucidated. Here, we show that human blood ASCs have distinct morphology, transcriptomes, and epigenetics compared with BM LLPCs. Compared with blood ASCs, BM LLPCs have decreased nucleus/cytoplasm ratio but increased endoplasmic reticulum and numbers of mitochondria. LLPCs up-regulate pro-survival genes MCL1, BCL2, and BCL-XL while simultaneously down-regulating pro-apoptotic genes HRK1, CASP3, and CASP8. Consistent with reduced gene expression, the pro-apoptotic gene loci are less accessible in LLPCs. Of the pro-survival genes, only BCL2 is concordant in gene up-regulation and loci accessibility. Using a novel in vitro human BM mimetic, we show that blood ASCs undergo similar morphological and molecular changes that resemble ex vivo BM LLPCs. Overall, our study demonstrates that early-minted blood ASCs in the BM microniche must undergo morphological, transcriptional, and epigenetic changes to mature into apoptotic-resistant LLPCs.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 23
Hongya Wu ◽  
Yanan Gao ◽  
Songli Li ◽  
Xiaoyu Bao ◽  
Jiaqi Wang ◽  

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the only mycotoxin with maximum residue limit in milk, which may result in serious human diseases. On the contrary, lactoferrin (Lf) is an active protein with multiple functions. Studies have confirmed that Lf has a powerful potential to protect the intestines, but the influence of Lf on mycotoxins is not clear. This study aims to explore whether Lf can protect the cytotoxicity induced by AFM1, and determine the underlying mechanisms in human normal colonic epithelial NCM460 cells. The results indicated that AFM1 decreased the cell viability, and increased the levels of apoptosis and autophagy of NCM460 cells. Lf can alleviate the cytotoxicity induced by AFM1 through enhancing cell viability, significantly down-regulated the expression of apoptotic genes and proteins (BAX, caspase3, caspase9, caspase3, and caspase9), and regulated the gene and protein expression of autophagy factors (Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, Beclin1, ULK1, ULK2, LC3, and p62). Furthermore, interference of the key gene Atg5 of autophagy can reduce AFM1-induced apoptosis, which is consistent with the role of Lf, implying that Lf may protect AFM1-induced intestinal injury by inhibiting excessive autophagy-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, our data indicated that Lf has a mitigating effect on apoptosis induced by AFM1 through the autophagy pathway.

Vishwa M. Khare ◽  
Vishesh K. Saxena ◽  
Mariah A. Pasternak ◽  
Angelique Nyinawabera ◽  
Kunwar B. Singh ◽  

2021 ◽  
Jayoung Kim ◽  
Austin Yeon ◽  
Khandakar Tanvir Ahmed ◽  
Wei Zhang ◽  
Khae-Hawn Kim ◽  

Abstract INTRODUCTION. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC) is characterized by chronic bladder pain and urinary storage symptoms. IC affects more than 3.3 million women in the U.S. alone. Ibis T-5000 assays and next generation sequencing have revealed that the C. albicans fungus is highly abundant in the urine of IC patients, particularly those who report greater pain, urinary urgency, and flares. However, currently, the clinical significance of C. albicans in the urine remains elusive. Here, we report the pathological effects and mechanisms triggered by C. albicans in a healthy normal bladder. METHODS. Immortalized bladder epithelial cells were infected with C. albicans. Perturbations in gene expression were identified using an Affymetrix gene microarray and subsequently followed with bioinformatic analyses, including gene set enrichment. Inflammatory and apoptotic genes were quantified using RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Central signal pathways were examined using Western blot analysis. RESULTS. DNA microarray analysis showed alterations in the transcriptome of bladder epithelial cells infected with C. albicans over both the short and long terms. Key inflammatory and apoptosis networks were changed, which was consistent with several cellular events. Cellular levels of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen oxide increased after infection. Productions of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandine E2 also increased after C. albicans infection, and their productions were suppressed by blockage of reactive oxygen species-epidermal growth factor receptor-Erk pathway. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides evidence that C. albicans infection triggers inflammation and cellular damage by dysregulating key regulatory genes, signaling pathways, and bioactive species in normal bladder cells.

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