digital converter
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Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Dongdong Chen ◽  
Xinhui Cui ◽  
Qidong Zhang ◽  
Di Li ◽  
Wenyang Cheng ◽  

As traditional ultrasonic imaging systems (UIS) are expensive, bulky, and power-consuming, miniaturized and portable UIS have been developed and widely utilized in the biomedical field. The performance of integrated circuits (ICs) in portable UIS obviously affects the effectiveness and quality of ultrasonic imaging. In the ICs for UIS, the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is used to complete the conversion of the analog echo signal received by the analog front end into digital for further processing by a digital signal processing (DSP) or microcontroller unit (MCU). The accuracy and speed of the ADC determine the precision and efficiency of UIS. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically review and summarize the characteristics of different types of ADCs for UIS, which can provide valuable guidance to design and fabricate high-performance ADC for miniaturized high resolution UIS. In this paper, the architecture and performance of ADC for UIS, including successive approximation register (SAR) ADC, sigma-delta (Σ-∆) ADC, pipelined ADC, and hybrid ADC, have been systematically introduced. In addition, comparisons and discussions of different types of ADCs are presented. Finally, this paper is summarized, and presents the challenges and prospects of ADC ICs for miniaturized high resolution UIS.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 554
Ying He ◽  
Sung Min Park

This paper presents a nine-bit integrator-based time-to-digital converter (I-TDC) realized in a 180 nm CMOS technology for the applications of indoor home-monitoring light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors. The proposed I-TDC exploits a clock-free configuration so as to discard clock-related dynamic power consumption and some notorious issues such as skew, glitch, and synchronization. It consists of a one-dimensional (1D) flash TDC to generate coarse-control codes and an integrator with a peak detection and hold (PDH) circuit to produce fine-control codes. A thermometer-to-binary converter is added to the 1D flash TDC, yielding four-bit coarse codes so that the measured detection range can be represented by nine-bit digital codes in total. Test chips of the proposed I-TDC demonstrate the measured results of the 53 dB dynamic range, i.e., the maximum detection range of 33.6 m and the minimum range of 7.5 cm. The chip core occupies the area of 0.14 × 1.4 mm2, with the power dissipation of 1.6 mW from a single 1.2-V supply.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 121
Mattia Cicalini ◽  
Massimo Piotto ◽  
Paolo Bruschi ◽  
Michele Dei

The design of advanced miniaturized ultra-low power interfaces for sensors is extremely important for energy-constrained monitoring applications, such as wearable, ingestible and implantable devices used in the health and medical field. Capacitive sensors, together with their correspondent digital-output readout interfaces, make no exception. Here, we analyse and design a capacitance-to-digital converter, based on the recently introduced iterative delay-chain discharge architecture, showing the circuit inner operating principles and the correspondent design trade-offs. A complete design case, implemented in a commercial 180 nm CMOS process, operating at 0.9 V supply for a 0–250 pF input capacitance range, is presented. The circuit, tested by means of detailed electrical simulations, shows ultra-low energy consumption (≤1.884 nJ/conversion), excellent linearity (linearity error 15.26 ppm), good robustness against process and temperature corners (conversion gain sensitivity to process corners variation of 114.0 ppm and maximum temperature sensitivity of 81.9 ppm/∘C in the −40 ∘C, +125 ∘C interval) and medium-low resolution of 10.3 effective number of bits, while using only 0.0192 mm2 of silicon area and employing 2.93 ms for a single conversion.

2021 ◽  
Konstantin Zolnikov ◽  
K. Tapero ◽  
Valeriy Suhanov ◽  
D. Chernov

The article discusses the results of the ERI tests for the effects of heavy charged particles. The data that arose during the irradiation of single radiation effects are presented. During the irradi-ation of the samples, the measurement of the integral flux (fluence) of ions was carried out using track detectors. To conduct the tests, technological equipment was used that implements the operating modes of the tested analog-to-digital converter and provides measurement of the parameters-the validity criteria. When irradiating samples with ions, the occurrence of a thyristor effect, cata-strophic failure and functional interruption effects were not recorded.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (24) ◽  
pp. 8267
Konrad Jurasz ◽  
Dariusz Kościelnik ◽  
Jakub Szyduczyński ◽  
Marek Miśkowicz

This paper presents a systematization and a comparison of the binary successive approximation (SA) variants. Three different variants are distinguished and all of them are applied in the analog-to-digital conversion. Regardless of an analog-to-digital converter circuit solution, the adoption of the specific SA variant imposes a particular character of the conversion process and related parameters. One of them is the ability to direct conversion of non-removeable physical quantities such as time intervals. Referencing to this aspect a general systematization of the variants and a name for each of them is proposed. In addition, the article raises the issues related to the complexity of implementation and energy consumption for each of the discussed binary SA variants. 

2021 ◽  
P.R. Dekker ◽  
A.L. van Bloois

We developed a facility for calibration of TLM (temporal light modulation) photometers. The facility is based on a laser-fed reference source, of which the radiance can be modulated with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM). A system of photodiodes, amplifiers, and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is used to sample the temporally modulated radiance of the source. With the facility a TLM photometer was calibrated for display contrast ratio RMS (root mean square) with an absolute combined standard uncertainty of 0,037 %. In addition, the facility has been characterised with the aim of measuring flicker and stroboscopic effect, considering the Ecodesign ‘Single Lighting Regulation’. The frequency response of the facility shows to be sufficient to accommodate measurements of flicker and the stroboscopic effect.

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