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2022 ◽  
Krishna Chandra Jha ◽  
Nimananda Rijal

Abstract. Nepal Opened up to 1950external tourists since Sagarmatha was scaled up in 1953. ‘The first hotel of Kathmandu was Hotel Snow View, opened in early1950 to cater to the tourists. Most of the workers were hired from India. At present, There are 138-star hotels, 1151 Tourist Standard Hotel, and 43999 hotel beds in Nepal. The study found out that there are 16 five-star hotels in Kathmandu with an occupancy capacity of 1343 rooms 54 restaurants in an average of 3.37 in a hotel. Total employment in five-star hotels found 3065 among them 1966 male and 1099 female employees; the ratio between men to women is 1: 1.78. And the outcome is interpreted as 1 F= 1.78 M. The employee should have refreshing training in their respective field of work. The Government and HAN should join hands in retaining the well-trained employees. They should have retirement benefits as well.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
pp. 169-185
Maksym Dubyna ◽  
Nataliia Kholiavko ◽  
Artur Zhavoronok ◽  
Yuriy Safonov ◽  
Denys Krylov ◽  

The purpose of the article is to study the impact of the ICT sector on economic development of countries based on the comparative analysis of this sector development in some Eastern European countries. Within the article, economic development of the outlined countries in 2010-2019 was studied and analyzed. The analysis of the impact of the ICT sector on the GDP formation allowed to single out certain groups of countries under this indicator and to identify the characteristics that are inherent to them. Using the correlation-regression analysis made it possible to analyze the ICT impact on economies development of Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Authors paid a special attention to the study of the influence of various factors on the ICT sector development. Accordingly, an analytical study of the dependence of the ICT sector weight in the GDP of the countries on the following parameters: enterprises that employ ICT specialists; enterprises that provided training to develop/upgrade ICT skills of their personnel; percentage of the ICT personnel in total employment; using Internet for Internet banking, % of individuals; enterprises who have ERP software package to share information between different functional areas; enterprises selling online (at least 1% of turnover), % of enterprises; online purchase in the last 12 months, % of individuals; enterprises having received orders via computer mediated networks, % of enterprises. Within the article, the features of the ICT sector development in the COVID-19 context are examined, and it is analyzed how the pandemic has affected the development of this sector in long and short terms. The study showed that the ICT sector today already plays a key role in the development of the national economies. Countries where the sector is developing faster show better performance and economic development.

Ketut Candri ◽  
I Komang Gde Bendesa

  Bali is an island where tourism plays a dominant role in its economy, so its potential needs to be further developed. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of tourist visits, number of hotels, and hotel occupancy rates on total employment and welfare of the people in Bali. The data used is secondary data published by Bali Provincial Tourism Office and the Bali Province Central Statistics Agency from 2000-2019. The analysis technique used is path analysis. The results showed that the number of tourist visits has a positive and significant effect on total employment, the number of hotels has a negative and insignificant effect on total employment, while the hotel occupancy rate has a positive and insignificant effect on total employment. In addition, the number of tourist visits has a negative and insignificant effect on welfare, the number of hotels and the total employment have a positive and significant effect on welfare, while the hotel occupancy rate has a negative and significant effect on the welfare of the community.  Labor absorption is not a mediating variable between tourist visits and occupancy rate on welfare.

ACC Journal ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 22-34
Lucie Böhmová ◽  
Petr Doucek ◽  
Ladislav Luc ◽  
Lea Nedomová ◽  
Richard Antonín Novák ◽  

The article examines wages in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT). Based on the so-called ISPV data (adjusted for inflation), CZSO and Eurostat data, several analyses were performed. The main conclusions are: (1) The number of ICT workers grew faster, their share in total employment increased from 2.2% to 3.9%. (2) From 2008 to 2013, the overall trend in wages is declining and they have been growing significantly since 2014 (influenced by both economic growth and falling inflation). (3) Wages of ICT specialists (CZ ISCO 25) grew considerably faster than those of ICT technicians (CZ ISCO 35). 4) Wages for the entire ICT and for the CZ-ISCO 25 category grew faster than GDP. (5) The gender pay gap in the Czech Republic is among the highest among the countries surveyed, although in 2019 it decreased compared to 2008. (6) Within the Czech Republic, the differences between the salaries of men and women in ICT are smaller than for the entire economy.

Rupinder Kaur ◽  
Anupama ◽  
Jasdeep Singh Toor ◽  
Kuldeep Singh

The economy of Punjab has been undergoing the process of structural change. The share of the primary sector in total employment has declined at a slower rate. Trends have that people are shifting to the non-farm sector as there is little potential in the agricultural sector to generate additional employment opportunities. The number of non-farm workers is increasing continuously in Punjab. In the non-farm sector, most of the regular jobs are being created in manufacturing and services. The non-manufacturing sector is mainly creating casual employment opportunities. In this background, the present paper examines the poverty status of the rural non-farm workers in Punjab. Using a sample of 659 households from the three districts of Punjab, the study reveals that about 19 percent of the non-farm workers live below the poverty line and 5.27 percent are extremely poor. The incidence of poverty is higher among the SC households than other castes. The workers, who are employed in casual jobs, are more prone to poverty. The greatest proportion of those living below the poverty line can be found in the case of the workers employed in brick kilns and in electronics repair works. About 37 percent of those working as construction workers, loaders in the grain market or in MGNREGS, are living below the poverty line. All of the wage workers in these three categories are poor and vulnerable. The proportion of non poor workers increases and that of living below the poverty line declines with the increase in the level of education and increase in the size of land ownership.

Chitrranjan Singh

The COVID-19 pandemic is the world's most serious human calamity in 2020, and it has wreaked havoc on India's economy. The COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc on India's economy in a variety of ways. The impact of COVID-19 on one of the most vital sectors, tourism, has been exceedingly distressing and has resulted in significant losses. As a developing economy, India was already in a precarious position before COVID-19. India's sudden nationwide lockdown was the world's largest. The four stages of continuous countrywide lockdown, which lasted more than two months, had a tremendous impact on India's tourism economy. The Indian travel and tourism sector contributed 6.8% of India's GDP in 2019 and generated 39,821 million jobs, or about 8.0 percent of total employment. The Indian tourism and hospitality industry is now forecasting a job loss of 38 million people. The Indian government has taken significant steps to resurrect the tourism industry. The Indian travel and tourist industry has begun to set general safety and hygienic standards for hosting and serving clients, as well as attempting to restore people's faith in travelling again following the corona outbreak.

SERIEs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Cristina Lafuente ◽  
Raül Santaeulàlia-Llopis ◽  
Ludo Visschers

AbstractWe investigate the behavior of aggregate hours supplied by workers in permanent (open-ended) contracts and temporary contracts, distinguishing changes in employment (extensive margin) and hours per worker (intensive margin). We focus on the differences between the Great Recession and the start of the COVID-19 Recession. In the Great Recession, the loss in aggregate hours is largely accounted for by employment losses (hours per worker did not adjust) and initially mainly by workers in temporary contracts. In contrast, in the early stages of the COVID-19 Recession, approximately sixty percent of the drop in aggregate hours is accounted for by permanent workers that do not only adjust hours per worker (beyond average) but also face employment losses—accounting for one-third of the total employment losses in the economy. We argue that our comparison across recessions allows for a more general discussion on the impact of adjustment frictions in the dual labor market and the effects policy, in particular the short-time work policy (ERTE) in Spain.

Noorasiah Sulaiman ◽  
Naiimah Mohd Sofia ◽  
Mohd Fahmy- Abdullah ◽  
Suliadi Sufahani Firdaus

Malaysian oil palm sector has contributed to the growth of gross domestic product (KDNK) by 37.9%, of manpower by a total of 40%, and of the total employment of agriculture sector by 22.1 million people in 2018 (DOSM, 2019). Furthermore, the exports performance shows that the palm oil production has increased from 180 thousand tons metric in 1965 to 27.86 million tons metric in 2019 (MPOB, 2019). The major importers of Malaysian palm oil include India, China, Pakistan, and the Netherlands. In 2016, India was the biggest importer (19.9 %), followed by China (10.1 %), Pakistan (6.4%) and Netherlands (5.5%). In addition to that, many oils are categorized according to the sources of oil and fat saturation which is produced globally (OWA, 2016). Palm oil register percent high by 28.0% compared with the oil other like oil bean soy (24.0 %), oil rapeseed (13.0 %) and spring sun (7.0 %), even more than the oils and fats from sources animals that only 25.0% only (OA, 2016). Although palm oil- based industries in Malaysia depend on inputs, especially human capital and technology to determine the overall performance and productivity, the sector is yet to use technology that depends on low-skilled workers. Thus, to improve the industries, the study was conducted to analyze the effects of the workers skills and technology on the total factor productivity (TFP). Keywords: Human Capital, Productivity, Palm Oil, Data Envelopment Analysis, Panel Data

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 199-213
Rana Ejaz Ali Khan ◽  
Tusawar Iftikhar Ahmad ◽  
Jaweria Haleem

Tourism is a rapidly growing industry globally and it is contributing a significant part in the GDP of the economies. In the literature, a variety of determinants of tourism are discussed theoretically and empirically but the effect of national governance on tourism is rarely discussed. This study investigates the effect of governance on tourism development in a panel of 65 developing economies for the time period of 2000-2015. Tourism development is measured by an index of three components, i.e. spending by international tourists, spending by local tourists and tourism’s share in total employment in the economy. For governance an index is constructed based on indicators of government effectiveness, political stability, regulatory quality, rule of law, and voice and accountability. Data has been taken from World Development Indicators (WDI), Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) and World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC). Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) estimation indicates that governance positively influence tourism development and its components, i.e. foreign visitors spending, domestic tourist spending and contribution of tourism in employment. The indicators of governance, i.e. government effectiveness, political stability, regulatory quality, rule of law and voice and accountability also positively affect tourism development. Terrorism, environmental degradation and corruption have shown adverse effect on tourism development as well as components of tourism development. The economic growth and trade openness have encouraging effect on tourism development and its comments. It is concluded that through good governance tourism may be developed but terrorism and corruption are needed to be eliminated.

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