The present study focus on non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. Coli (STEC), included a bacteriological study was subjected to provide additional information for non-O157 STEC prevalence in children and calves. Isolation by using selective culturing media (CHROMagar STEC and CHROMagar O157) from 127 children suffering from diarrhea and 133 calves in Al- Muthanna province. Characterization depends on culturing positive colony on MacConkey agar and Levin’s Eosin Methylene blue agar, staining single colony from the growth by gram stain, biochemical tests; Indole, the Methyl Red, Voges-Proskauer, Citrate test, Oxidase, Catalase, Urease, Motility, Kligler Iron and Api-20E, were done to confirm a diagnosis of non-O157 STEC, The reliable isolation as non-O157 STEC serotyping by specific latex agglutination test for the target non-O157 STEC (big six) serogroup (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145). The current study showed the prevalence of non-O157 STEC was 20 of out 127 (15.73%) in samples collected from children and 27 / 133 (20.30%) in calves samples in conclusion the Non-O157 STEC is an important cause of diarrhea in children, and calves; finally, the calves play an important reservoir for Non-O157 STEC.
It is very important, before starting the manufacture of any vaccine from any microorganism estimation of LD₅₀ of that microorganism to determine their pathogenicity and virulence. Estimated LD₅₀ was very important to be used in challenge tests later to estimate the protection level of the manufactured vaccine in experimental animals. So, this study was aimed to estimate LD₅₀ of local methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacterial isolate. A pilot study has been done to determine approximately LD₅₀ of used MRSA in the study by using different bacterial concentrations of MRSA to determine approximate LD₅₀ that can be able to kill half numbers of animals used in the study to be used later in the estimation of exact LD₅₀ by using of Up-and-Down method. Ninety Wistar albino rats have been used for this purpose, eighty-four animals which divided into fourteen groups by six animals for each group (for pilot study) and remained six animals for (Up-and-Down method). The results showed that 9 X 10¹⁰ CFU/ml was led to killing half number of animals used in the study, this dose has been used as starting dose in the Up-and-Down method to the estimation of the exact LD₅₀ dose. The results showed that 5.526 X 10¹⁰ CFU/ml was the exact LD₅₀ of local MRSA isolate, which will be used later in the challenge test to estimate the protection level of a locally prepared vaccine against MRSA isolate.
The study was aimed to estimate the gestational age of Shami does by transabdominal ultrasonographic measurement of maternal parameters. Thirty-three Shami does aged 2-2.5 years with confirmed conception dates were used. The does were examined in a standing position using a transabdominal 3.5 MHz convex sector probe of real-time ultrasonography. The does were examined weekly starting from 21 days of pregnancy until parturition. Measurements of the maternal parameters that include; the uterine diameter, placental width, and placental height were obtained from the ultrasonographic images using the software Screen Calipers. Results showed that the gestational sac and embryos were observed early on 21 and 35 days of pregnancy. The litter size of Shami does was 2-3 kids. Uterine diameter ranged between 27±1.4 and 136.9±4.2 mm between 21-130 days, placentomes width was 17.6±0.6 – 38.5±2.1 mm, placentomes height was 9.5 ± 1.8 – 24.5 ± 1.4 mm on 51-150 days of gestation. The highest positive correlations were obtained between the gestational age and the measurements of uterine diameter (r=0.943). The least positive correlations were between the gestational age and the values of placenta width (r=0.715) and placentom height (r=0.615). In conclusion, transabdominal ultrasonography is a practical method for pregnancy diagnosis and monitoring of embryo in Shami goats. Also, it is reliable to estimate gestation age from 21 days of pregnancy. The uterine diameter was the best maternal parameter that can be used for the longest period for estimation of Shami goats gestational age.
Current work was conducted to investigate the histological architecture of the uterine tube and uterus during the period of late pregnancy in rabbits. Twelve adult local breed rabbits were used. The samples from different parts of the uterine tube were prepared for histological study after staining with H&E, Masson’s trichrome and combine Alcian blue (pH2.5)-PAS. The pre ampulla was a narrow tube and its tunica mucosa had slightly long simple mucosal folds lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium, the ampulla had a wide lumen and its tunica mucosa displayed several highly tall branched mucosal folds with few short simple folds while the isthmus was the narrowest region and its tunica mucosa displayed few of tall and short simple mucosal folds. The mucosa of three parts of the uterine tube was lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium which is composed of three types of cells: mucous secretory cells, non-secretory cells and basal cells, the mucous secretory cells were the predominant type and revealed secretory activities. The lamina propria-submucosa of the uterine tube was composed of cellular connective tissue and tunica muscularis. The uterus had a very thick wall with well-recognized endometrium and myometrium, the endometrium was composed of many-branched and simple endometrial folds that were covered by multinucleated syncytial cells and simple cuboidal epithelial cells. Lamina propria was composed of loose connective tissue had scattered groups of well growing simple uterine glands that showed secretory activities. The current result showed that the uterus during the late period of pregnancy was differed from those of non-pregnant rabbits, while the uterine tube at late pregnancy has a structure that appeared prepared for the next physiological period.
Tularemia is one of the diseases transmitted between humans and animals. It is caused by a Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. Recent serological studies suggested that tularemia can be an endemic bacterial zoonotic disease in some countries surrounding Iraq such as Iran and Turkey. The main objective of this study is to detect tularemia in Sulaimani province northeast Iraq near to Iran border. Sulaimani city also has contact with many Turkish cities. This study was conducted between Jun and October 2020. Blood samples were taken from one hundred local breed rabbits of different ages and sexes. A highly sensitive real-time PCR technique was used. Sixteen out of one hundred blood samples (16%) were positively taken from different local breed rabbits from four different places in Sulaimani province. All positive samples were detected in the center of Sulaimani city. No published documents have been reported yet about tularemia in Kurdistan Region. This paper documented molecular detection of F. tularensis in local breed rabbits in Sulaimani province Kurdistan Region-Iraq
This study was conducted to induce and evaluate reversible liver fibrosis in dogs by surgical closure of the major duodenal orifice. The study was performed on six healthy local adult dogs. Reversible liver fibrosis was surgically induced in all animals by surgical closure of major duodenal papilla using absorbable suture material for 60 days. Induced liver fibrosis was assessed by clinical, ultrasonographical examination, laboratory and histological methods. The clinical manifestation of the jaundiced dogs showed reduced food intake, pale-yellowish mucus membrane, inflammatory signs of the wound site and severe postoperative pain. Biochemically, there was significantly increased values of the aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, indirect bilirubin, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin especially during the first two days after surgery followed by a gradual decrease of these values until the end of the but still higher than normal values. Ultrasonographic examinations showed abnormal changes in the liver tissue such as an increase in both size and wall thickness of the gall bladder and mottled heterogeneous appearance of the liver during the first two weeks following the surgical induction of the hepatic fibrosis. Histological evaluation of liver samples revealed showed necrosis of hepatocytes and deposition of eosinophilic material, infiltration of inflammatory cells, recent thrombus in the hepatic vein, fatty change. Slight clinical, biochemical, ultrasonographic improvement was observed at 30th post-operative day. In conclusion, surgical induction of reversible liver fibrosis in dogs was an easy technique by surgical closure of major duodenal papilla and the results were confirmed by the clinical, ultrasonographical, laboratory and histological examination.
In the current study, we use 25 local Iraqi lambs. With initial body weight (24) kg. The lambs were randomly divided into five treated groups, the first group without treatment as control, the second and third treated with 20%and 40% Agricultural Waste treated with trade enzymes, fourth and fifth treatment 20%and 40% Agricultural Waste treated with local enzymes. The result demonstrated a significant (P<0.01) increase in the quantity of roughages, total feed intake, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Acid Detergent Fiber( ADF) and Lignin (ADL) in T5 followed by T4 compared with others treated groups and showed a significant (P<0.01) increase in the digestibility of NDF ,ADF in T4, T5 compare with other treated groups. While T5and T4 recorded Superiority increase in weight gain, and significant improvement in economic cost efficiency with ratio improvement of 5.90, 5.97 % respectively
Reports of the occurrence of lumbar vertebrae variants in horses in Trinidad are rare in the literatures. Parts of the skeletons of two horses of unknown age and sex that died in a horse farm in Trinidad and Tobago were brought to the Anatomy laboratory. It was reported that specimens of fused left transverse processes of the 5th and 6th lumbar vertebrae and a blunted left transverse process of the 6th lumbar vertebra in thoroughbred racehorses in Trinidad.
This study aimed to induce lead poisoning experimentally in male goats to determine the toxic dose and investigate it is effects on hematological parameters, and the functions of the liver and kidney. The experiment was performed on 15 male goats, aged between 3 – 5 months with a mean weighing 13±0.65 kg. Goats were divided into five equal groups, the first represented the control group given tap water, while the other groups were given orally (by stomach tube) 70,100,200 and 400 mg/kg B.W. of lead acetate respectively, for 5 days. Blood was collected weekly for 4 weeks to estimate the concentrations of lead, hematological and biochemical analysis. The results indicated a significantly (P≤0.05) increase of lead(0.738±0.07ppm), only in goats which received 400 mg Pb/kg B.W of lead with symptoms included: depression, dullness, anemia, muscle twitching, staggering, and teeth grinding, with a significant reduction in erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin 10.391±0.41*106/ml, 25.5±0.55%, and 8.30±0.19g/dl respectively, compared with the control ones. Also, increase in total white blood cell count to 9.098±0.08*103/ml, neutrophils 39.07±0.93%, monocytes 1.88±0.07%, and eosinophils 4.82±0.05%. The same group results showed significant elevations in the activities of liver enzymes; ALT 59.9±0.20u/l, AST 243±1.3u/l, in addition, the serum levels of creatinine and urea were also increased indicating renal frailer 1.96±0.05 mg/dl and 29.78±0.34 mg/dl respectively. In summary, this is the first study that proved the toxic dose of lead poisoning for male goats in Iraq and estimate their hazardous results on the hematological and chemobiological analyses on goats.
The aim of the current study was to know the effect of season on the numbers of follicles and Oocytes recovered during Several months. 304 genital systems of Ewes were collected from Al-Fallujah abattoir/ Al-Fallujah, Al-Anbar province, during the period from 3, January 2021 to 1, July 2021. The samples were transported with Cool Box contained normal saline to the Reproductive Biotechnology Lab/Dept. of Surgery and Obstetrics / College of Vet. Medicine, University of Fallujah. The results showed that the total numbers of Oocytes with Cumulus cells recovered were 1037 oocytes. The results also showed a significant difference (P≤ 0.01) in the numbers of follicles between the right and the left ovaries. The numbers of follicles present at right ovaries were 776 in a percentage of (56.73%) from the total numbers where it was 592 follicles at the left ovaries in a percent of (43.27%) from the total numbers. It has been observed superiority of right ovary on the left ovary in the numbers of oocytes recovered, where it was 603 oocytes (58.15 %) from the right ovary and 434 oocytes (41.85 %) from the Left ovary. Also, the results showed a high Significant difference (P≤ 0.01) in the size of large and small follicles numbers. when the small follicles have large numbers. It has been also concluded from this study that there was a significant difference (P≤ 0.01) in the numbers of follicles and oocytes between the months of March and April as compared with other months.