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2021 ◽  
Vol 38 (4) ◽  
pp. 19-31
Youn-Ju Park

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1884
Blanca De-la-Cruz-Torres ◽  
Carlos Romero-Morales

Background: Soleus injury is one of the most common soft tissue tears during sport activities. Current classifications of muscle tears are based on symptoms and tear size and they do not contribute suitable evidence-based treatment protocols. The objective of this study was to analyze the most frequent echotexture findings of patients with soleus muscle injury, located in the central intramuscular tendon (IMT), and healthy people to determine whether they behave differently and to propose an ultrasound (US)-based classification. Methods: eighty-four athletes, who played in sport activities comprising lower limbs. Echotexture characteristics of soleus muscle were reviewed for 84 subjects. They were divided based on the muscle echogenicity in three groups (Injury Type 1 group, Injury type 2 group and healthy group). Echointensity (EI) and Echovariation (EV) were taken in all groups like quantitative US variable. Results. The Injury Type 1 group was identified by a hypoechoic area and characterized by a higher EV; and Injury Type 2 group was identified by a fibrotic area and characterized by a lower EV. The echogenic pattern of healthy people obtained an intermediate value of EV between both injured soleus types. Conclusions. EV may be useful to classify different types of soleus muscle pathology according to the echogenicity pattern. An innovative proposed US-based classification system for soleus tears may be used to guide treatment decisions for patients with central tendon injury of soleus muscle.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xiaohua Wan ◽  
Chang Liu ◽  
Thomas P. Olson ◽  
Xiankun Chen ◽  
Weihui Lu ◽  

Background: As demand for cardiopulmonary exercise test using a supine position has increased, so have the testing options. However, it remains uncertain whether the existing evaluation criteria for the upright position are suitable for the supine position. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare the differences in peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) between upright and supine lower extremity bicycle exercise.Methods: We searched PubMed, Web Of Science and Embase from inception to March 27, 2021. Self-control studies comparing VO2peak between upright and supine were included. The quality of the included studies was assessed using a checklist adapted from published papers in this field. The effect of posture on VO2peak was pooled using random/fixed effects model.Results: This meta-analysis included 32 self-control studies, involving 546 participants (63% were male). 21 studies included only healthy people, 9 studies included patients with cardiopulmonary disease, and 2 studies included both the healthy and cardiopulmonary patients. In terms of study quality, most of the studies (n = 21, 66%) describe the exercise protocol, and we judged theVO2peak to be valid in 26 (81%) studies. Meta-analysis showed that the upright VO2peak exceeded the supine VO2peak [relative VO2peak: mean difference (MD) 2.63 ml/kg/min, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.66-3.59, I2 = 56%, p < 0.05; absolute VO2peak: MD 0.18 L/min, 95% CI 0.10-0.26, I2 = 63%, p < 0.05). Moreover, subgroup analysis showed there was more pooled difference in healthy people (4.04 ml/kg/min or 0.22 L/min) than in cardiopulmonary patients (1.03 ml/kg/min or 0.12 L/min).Conclusion: VO2peak in the upright position is higher than that in supine position. However, whether this difference has clinical significance needs further verification.Systematic Review Registration: identifier, CRD42021233468.

2021 ◽  
pp. 147-151
S. L. Popel ◽  
T. P. Vasylyk ◽  
I. M. Boiko ◽  
S. L. Anokhina ◽  
M. V. Koval

Myofascial pain syndrome (MFPS) is one of the most common comorbid pathological processes that develops in skeletal muscle in patients with stroke, which is manifested by local seals and pain in various parts of the muscle. Despite the fact that the interest in MFPS arose in the last century, the intimate mechanisms of its development and course remain to be fully explored. It was found that the main manifestations of MFPS were the presence of miofascial trigger point in the area of palpation of the corresponding muscle with local pain and hypersensitivity within the palpated cord-segmentes, the characteristic pattern of reflected pain and reflected autonomic phenomenon, local convulsive response during transverse palpation. It is accompanied by muscle fatigue and significant muscle weakness without severe atrophy. Attention is drawn to the clear recurrence-reproducibility of pain, ie the so-called "recognizable" pain. All of the above symptoms constitute a general pattern of the disease, which has diagnostic value and is proposed for use as prognostic parameters with the obligatory use of the results of electromyographic examination. Diagnosis of active and latent MTP was performed on the basis of generally accepted l signs. The greatest discomfort for the patient is the presence of active MTP with characteristic spontaneously reproducing pain. Latent MTP is detected in up to 90% of cases among healthy people, and adverse factors only contribute to their transition to an active state with a characteristic symptom complex. The presence of an active myofascial trigger point with a characteristic spontaneously reproducing pain is the most painful manifestation. Latent MTP is also detected in most cases among healthy people, and unfavorable factors only contribute to their transition to an active state with a characteristic symptom complex. The study of the number of turns of the adhesive part of the potential in the zone of active ICC showed that there is a concentration of fibers in the zone of one motor units (MU). The average value of this indicator increases in the early stages of the process by 2 times. Even a small degree of desynchronization of the potentials of individual MU causes an increase in the number of rounds, which reflects the number of fibers involved in the generation of MC PMU. Absence of spontaneous muscle fibers (MF) activity, registration of end plate (EP) activity, PMU parameters such as amplitude decrease, shift of neurohistogram of potential distribution by duration towards smaller values or high percentage of polyphasicity, due to increase in number of turns, and also change  their adhesive part, increase of MF density in zone MTP - they all determine changes in structural and functional parameters by muscle type. The work is devoted to the clinical, neuro-physiological characteristics of a patient with MFPS on the background of intracerebral hemorrhage and left hemyplegia based on the analysis of the neuro-functional organization of the motor units of the back muscles. Substantiated genesis and possible mechanism of development and formation of myofascial trigger point in such patients.

Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 2012
Elena Shidlovskaya ◽  
Nadezhda Kuznetsova ◽  
Elizaveta Divisenko ◽  
Maria Nikiforova ◽  
Andrei Siniavin ◽  

The search for effective methods to detect patients who excrete a viable virus is one of the urgent tasks of modern biomedicine. In the present study, we examined the diagnostic value of two antigen tests, BIOCREDIT COVID-19 Ag (RapiGEN Inc., Anyang, Korea) and SGTI-flex COVID-19 Ag (Sugentech Inc., Cheongju, Korea), for their diagnostic value in identifying patients who excrete viable SARS-CoV-2. As part of the study, we examined samples from 106 patients who had just been admitted to the hospital and who had undergone quantitative RT-PCR and assessment of viability of SARS-CoV-2 using cell culture. Assessment of the tests’ value for detecting samples containing viable virus showed high sensitivity for both tests. Sensitivity was 78.6% (95% CI, from 49.2% to 95.3%) for SGTI-flex COVID-19 Ag and 100% (95% CI, from 76.8% to 100%) for Biocredit COVID-19 Ag. The specificity of rapid tests was significantly higher than that of RT-PCR and was 66.3% (95% CI, from 55.7% to 75.8%) and 67.4% (95% CI, from 56.8% to 76.8%) for SGTI-flex COVID-19 Ag and Biocredit COVID-19 Ag versus 30.4% (95% CI, from 21.3% to 40.9%) obtained for PCR. Thus, for tasks of identifying viable SARS-CoV-2 during screening of conditionally healthy people, as well as monitoring those quarantined, rapid tests show significantly better results.

BMC Neurology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Lung Chan ◽  
Chien-Tai Hong ◽  
Chyi-Huey Bai

Abstract Background Stroke is a crucial health threat to adults worldwide. Despite extensive knowledge of risk-factor mitigation, no primary prevention exists for healthy people. Coffee is a widely consumed beverage globally. Health benefit of coffee for several neurological diseases has been identified; however, the association between stroke risk and coffee consumption in healthy people has not been determined. We investigated the effect of coffee on stroke risk by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Methods Electronic databases, namely PubMed, BioMed Central, Medline, and Google Scholar, were searched using terms related to stroke and coffee. Articles that described clear diagnostic criteria for stroke and details on coffee consumption were included. The reference lists of relevant articles were reviewed to identify eligible studies not shortlisted using these terms. Enrolled studies were grouped into three outcome categories: overall stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and ischemic stroke. Results Seven studies were included and all of them were large-scale, long-term, follow-up cohort studies of a healthy population. Upon comparing the least-coffee-consuming groups from each study, the meta-analysis revealed a reduction in the risk of overall stroke during follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] for overall stroke = 0.922, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.855–0.994, P = 0.035). In studies with a clear definition of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, coffee consumption reduced the risk of ischemic stroke more robustly than that of hemorrhagic stroke (hemorrhagic, HR = 0.895, 95% CI = 0.824–0.972, P = .008; ischemic, HR = 0.834, 95% CI = 0.739–0.876, P < .001). No obvious dose-dependent or U-shaped effect was observed. Conclusions Coffee consumption reduces the risk of overall stroke, especially ischemic stroke. Further investigation is required to identify beneficial components in coffee, including caffeine and phenolic acids, to develop preventive medication for stroke.

Diagnostyka ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 9-16
Abdelhamid Bourouhou ◽  
Abdelilah Jilbab ◽  
Chafik Nacir ◽  
Zaineb Bourouhou

Natalia V. Spasskaya ◽  
Irina M. Kulikova ◽  
Elena E. Afanasyeva ◽  

The socio-economic development of the country is the goal of every state. An important element in achieving this goal is the availability and application of a macroeconomic generalizing indicator that reveals the purpose of public policy. The main aim of the study is to identify the socio-economic characteristics of the organization of life in the countries of Scandinavia, using the macroeconomic generalizing indicator RAZ (the name of the indicator is based on the first part of the Russian word “razvitie” translated as “development”), proposed by the authors. The authors consider this indicator as suitable for cross-country comparisons of the quality of life and an objective estimation of development of the society from the point of view of focusing on the maximum disclosure of person's abilities and personal development. The research was based on the methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization and modeling, as well as on the case-study method. The use of these methods made it possible to identify the characteristics of the socio-economic organization of life and characteristics defining quality of life (human birth, education and medical care) in their composition, and also the indicators corresponding to them characterizing qualitative changes — levels of human birth rate, education and medical care. The generalized estimation of the specified characteristics defining quality of life, it is offered to make by means of a macroeconomic generalizing indicator. For its calculation a set of the quantity indicators defining quality of life (population in the country, number of the persons trained in an education system and number of healthy people) is generated. The authors make an assessment of the macroeconomic generalizing indicator and the set of the quantity indicators defining quality of life (the population in the country, the number of healthy people and the number of people studying in the education system).The study has developed an approach to calculating defining quality of life indicators using the System of National Accounts according to the data of the European Bureau of Statistical Research and the official websites of the national statistical services of the countries of Scandinavia and Switzerland as a country that has indicators close to the leading values of the countries of Scandinavia. These estimates can be used for comparative analysis purposes. The study compiled a rating of countries according to the macroeconomic generalizing indicator. According to calculations, Norway occupies a leading position. The lowest rank is observed in Sweden. There are changes in the quality of life in society, and this complex phenomenon requires an objective assessment. Generalizing indicator of the development provides such an assessment. The indicator allows us to evaluate the set of characteristics that determine the quality of life, which is not yet taken into account in cross-country comparisons, and to compare them. It has been established that the lack of development of the conceptual apparatus and the unavailability of important statistical information complicate the principle of compiling the indicator and lead to an inaccurate calculation of the macroeconomic generalizing indicator at this study stage. Nevertheless, it was found out that the calculation could be made in relation to the following levels: humanity (world), country, region or city. Further research is planned to study substantiation of the conceptual device of formation of RAZ as indicator for cross-country comparisons of quality of life and an objective estimation of development of the society, as well as for using it as a modelling element of social and economic systems. Besides, it is necessary to develop additional characteristics that take into account the influence of a person’s life expectancy on the quality of his life, as well as in clarifying the conceptual apparatus for forming a macroeconomic generalizing indicator RAZ for building a rational organization of people's place of residence. This approach creates new theoretical and methodological foundations for scientific knowledge of the socio-economic development of the countries and allows us to analyze the quality of life as a base which moves development of the countries in different historical periods and to see the development of the world in the future in a different way.

Yongshun Ma ◽  
Yao Zhang ◽  
Houxiang Jiang ◽  
Shixin Xiang ◽  
Yueshui Zhao ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (6) ◽  
pp. S274-S279
Catharine Q. Fromknecht ◽  
Victoria A. Hallman ◽  
Megan Heffernan

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