electrical heating
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Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 23
Celia Marcos

Effect of water immersion at different times (from 1/2h to 24 h) on raw and expanded vermiculite from Uganda was investigated. The expansion was carried out by electrical heating at different temperatures and by irradiation with microwaves. After, the expansibility (k) and the water absorption content (WA) were obtained and the samples were characterized. The elemental and mineral composition was determined by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction, respectively; the thermal behavior by thermal gravimetric analyses; and the textural parameters by BET. The expansibility of Ugandan vermiculite is relatively lower than the other commercial vermiculites due basically to its lower K2O content (0.36%) and higher water content (about 20%). The water absorption capacity of samples significantly increased with the increase in heating temperature. The maximum WA content, about 130 mg/g, was obtained at 900 °C for 24 h. The loss of water during the expansion process in the Ugandan vermiculite caused loss of structural order and crystallinity. Moreover, in the samples expanded and subsequently immersed in water, the structural order and crystallinity increased with increasing WA values. Specific surface area and porosity hardly vary with temperature and are practically independent of vermiculite purity. Expanded commercial vermiculites could be a suitable hygroscopic material, given its efficient water absorption. Microwave expanded commercial vermiculites, in this case, would not be recommended

Gases ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (4) ◽  
pp. 180-198
Aruna Chandrasekar ◽  
Eoin Syron

Decarbonization of the heating sector is essential to meet the ambitious goals of the Paris Climate Agreement for 2050. However, poorly insulated buildings and industrial processes with high and intermittent heating demand will still require traditional boilers that burn fuel to avoid excessive burden on electrical networks. Therefore, it is important to assess the impact of residential, commercial, and industrial heat decarbonization strategies on the distribution and transmission gas networks. Using building energy models in EnergyPlus, the progressive decarbonization of gas-fueled heating was investigated by increasing insulation in buildings and increasing the efficiency of gas boilers. Industrial heat decarbonization was evaluated through a progressive move to lower-carbon fuel sources using MATLAB. The results indicated a maximum decrease of 19.9% in natural gas utilization due to the buildings’ thermal retrofits. This, coupled with a move toward the electrification of heat, will reduce volumes of gas being transported through the distribution gas network. However, the decarbonization of the industrial heat demand with hydrogen could result in up to a 380% increase in volumetric flow rate through the transmission network. A comparison between the decarbonization of domestic heating through gas and electrical heating is also carried out. The results indicated that gas networks can continue to play an essential role in the decarbonized energy systems of the future.

2021 ◽  
Peng Chen ◽  
Guobin Yang ◽  
Lei Chen ◽  
Guobin Zhang ◽  
Haochen Han ◽  

Abstract The Junin block in Venezuela was known as an ultra heavy oil belt reserved in extra shallow layers (950ft-1,380ft) with unconsolidated formations. A cluster wells platform drilling was required for the Field Development Program (FDP). Optimisation of the well pattern and drilling of shallow 3D cluster horizontal wells for development of ultra heavy oil are presented in this paper. A well pattern of hand-shape dislocation was forwarded to enhance effective recovery of heavy oil in diamond blind area. Optimisation of the casing programs and control of the well trajectories as well as other key performance drilling were designed. A strict anti-collision barrier design and operation steps were worked out to assure the drilling safety. The loss-resistance, anti-collapse, stick-stuck proof, lubrication and reservoir protection were put into considerations for the drilling fluid design. Recovery of heavy oil was enhanced by means of electrical heating system. Drilling challenges such as shallow target zones, big build-up rate, long horizontal sections, great friction drag and torques, and well trajectories control were experienced and settled. Especially the puzzles of well trajectories control in unconsolidated formations, great friction drag and torques of strings in large displacement long horizontal sections for subsequent operations, and the unstable wellbore were tackled. A typical well data revealed that the horizontal displacement vs. TVD ratio was as high as up to 4.5. The setting depth of surface casing and the determination of KOP were critical to the horizontal wells with large displacement in shallow layers. Pressurized combined drilling and casing-running by means of top drive overcame the drag and torque and achieved planned TD and casing setting depth. The use of electrical wireline heating rod increased the temperatures in and close to the wellbore, and compensated the radius heat loss and avoided viscosity increase of heavy oil so that the output was maintained and improved. It was the first time for successful drilling of shallow 3D cluster horizontal wells with ratio of horizontal displacement vs. TVD over 3.5 in heavy oil belt of Venezuela. The innovative palm-shape dislocation of the well pattern design satisfied the demand of reservoir development and contributed to good production gain of heavy oil.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  

Introduction: Post Anesthetic Shivering (PAS) or the incidence of post-anesthetic shivering is reported to be around 33-65% in patients undergoing general anesthesia and about 33-56,7% in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia. The treatment can be done pharmacologically with drugs and non-pharmacologically one of them with a warm blanket. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the effectiveness of giving thick cloth blankets and 380C electric blankets with a reduction in the incidence of shivering in postoperative patients at the Surgical Installation dr. SitanalaTangerang Hospital. Methods: The research method was a quantitative study with a quasi-experimental design with a pre-test post-test with control group design. The number of samples were 30 patients. Data was collected by observing shivering responses. The intervention was carried out by firing 380C electric blankets and thick cloth blankets. Result: The results showed that of the 15 postoperative patients before being given an electric blanket, almost half were 7 (46,7%) having grade 3 shivering, where as in patients given thick cloth blankets almost half were 6 (40%) having grade 2 shivering. Electrical heating is almost half that is 6 (40%) does not experience shivering (grade 0), where as in patients given regular blankets almost half are 6 (40%) experiencing grade 2 shivering. Statistical test results were obtained (p-value = 0.001, ? : 0.05) and (p-value = 0.005, ?: 0.05). Conclusion: there was an electric warm blanket or thick cloth blanket that influences the incidence of shivering in postoperative patients at the Surgical Installation dr. Sitanala Tangerang Hospital, but electric blankets are more effective than thick blankets. Suggestion is that the hospital is expected to make an intervention to provide electric warm blankets with a temperature of 380C postoperatively can be used as a fixed procedure for the service of surgical patients to prevent complications of shivering

Guohui Song ◽  
Shanhui Zhao ◽  
Xiang Wang ◽  
Xiaobo Cui ◽  
Hongyan Wang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 34 (12) ◽  
pp. 125018
Fan Yang ◽  
Ruipeng Zhao ◽  
Bowan Tao ◽  
Xi Chen ◽  
Tao Huang ◽  

Abstract An advanced electrical heating technique was proposed and adopted for the reel-to-reel deposition of double-sided Gd x Y1−x Ba2Cu3O7−δ (Y(Gd)BCO) films on the surface of LaMnO3/epitaxial-MgO/IBAD-MgO/Y2O3/Al2O3/Hastelloy tapes based on the metal organic chemical vapor deposition process. In this technique, heating current is introduced into alloy tape to produce heat through the electric brushes. The use of thin Hastelloy tapes is an effective method to obtain a high engineering current density. However, the reduction of the substrate thickness will directly attenuate its mechanical strength, which will lead to the deformation of tapes at high temperature based on original electric heating device. More seriously, the electrical contact between the alloy substrate and the brush will deteriorate, which could cause ignition and ablation at the edge of the tapes. Therefore, in order to improve mechanical and electrical stability, we redesigned a novel electrical heating device to deposit Y(Gd)BCO films. Furthermore, through adopting the multiple-deposition process based on the new electrical heating device, the J e of Y(Gd)BCO film can reach 900 A mm−2 (at self-field, 77 K), which has been significantly improved compared with the J e before optimization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1203 (3) ◽  
pp. 032140
Jan Wrana ◽  
Wojciech Struzik

Abstract The subject of this paper is the study of a public utility building, a shopping centre in Warsaw/Targówek, carried out as part of the programme of “Research for obtaining high air quality in architecture. The purpose of the study of the building is to utilise a new technology which will lead to reductions in electrical and heat energy consumption and cuts in CO2 emissions in the modernised Shopping Centre Public Utility Building in Warsaw. The building is equipped with systems for obtaining heat and cold from groundwater and is adapted to a low electrical energy consumption level with the lowest primary energy ratio in Poland. It is located in Warsaw and, in addition to the energy sourcing system, features a highly modern control system (BMS). The objective of the study is to demonstrate operating costs for a building with low exterior wall and roof insulation parameters. In addition, the building uses a heating system based solely on electrical heating due to its lack of access to gas and district heating. The conducted studies and analyses allowed a comparison of the operating costs of old buildings following modernisation with those of new buildings.

Muhammad Rabiu Ado

AbstractThe current commercial technologies used to produce heavy oils and bitumen are carbon-, energy-, and wastewater-intensive. These make them to be out of line with the global efforts of decarbonisation. Alternative processes such as the toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) that works as an in situ combustion process that uses horizontal producer well to recover partially upgraded oil from heavy oils and bitumen reservoirs are needed. However, THAI is yet to be technically and economically well proven despite pilot and semi-commercial operations. Some studies concluded using field data that THAI is a low-oil-production-rate process. However, no study has thoroughly investigated the simultaneous effects of start-up methods and wells configuration on both the short and long terms stability, sustainability, and profitability of the process. Using THAI validated model, three models having a horizontal producer well arranged in staggered line drive with the injector wells are simulated using CMG STARS. Model A has two vertical injectors via which steam was used for pre-ignition heating, and models B and C each has a horizontal injector via which electrical heater and steam were respectively used for pre-ignition heating. It is found that during start-up, ultimately, steam injection instead of electrical heating should be used for the pre-ignition heating. Clearly, it is shown that model A has higher oil production rates after the increase in air flux and also has a higher cumulative oil recovery of 2350 cm3 which is greater than those of models B and C by 9.6% and 4.3% respectively. Thus, it can be concluded that for long-term projects, model A settings and wells configuration should be used. Although it is now discovered that the peak temperature cannot in all settings tell how healthy a combustion front is, it has revealed that model A does indeed have far more stable, safer, and efficient combustion front burning quality and propagation due to the maintenance of very high peak temperatures of mostly greater than 600 °C and very low concentrations of produced oxygen of lower than 0.4 mol% compared to up to 2.75 mol% in model C and 1 mol% in model B. Conclusively, since drilling of, and achieving uniform air distribution in horizontal injector (HI) well in actual field reservoir are costly and impracticable at the moment, and that electrical heating will require unphysically long time before mobilised fluids reach the HP well as heat transfer is mainly by conduction, these findings have shown decisively that the easy-and-cheaper-to-drill two vertical injector wells configured in a staggered line drive pattern with the horizontal producer should be used, and steam is thus to be used for pre-ignition heating.

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