De-novo transcriptome analysis unveils differentially expressed genes regulating drought and salt stress response in Panicum sumatrense

2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Rasmita Rani Das ◽  
Seema Pradhan ◽  
Ajay Parida

AbstractScreening the transcriptome of drought tolerant variety of little millet (Panicum sumatrense), a marginally cultivated, nutritionally rich, susbsistent crop, can identify genes responsible for its hardiness and enable identification of new sources of genetic variation which can be used for crop improvement. RNA-Seq generated ~ 230 million reads from control and treated tissues, which were assembled into 86,614 unigenes. In silico differential gene expression analysis created an overview of patterns of gene expression during exposure to drought and salt stress. Separate gene expression profiles for leaf and root tissue revealed the differences in regulatory mechanisms operating in these tissues during exposure to abiotic stress. Several transcription factors were identified and studied for differential expression. 61 differentially expressed genes were found to be common to both tissues under drought and salinity stress and were further validated using qRT-PCR. Transcriptome of P. sumatrense was also used to mine for genic SSR markers relevant to abiotic stress tolerance. This study is first report on a detailed analysis of molecular mechanisms of drought and salinity stress tolerance in a little millet variety. Resources generated in this study can be used as potential candidates for further characterization and to improve abiotic stress tolerance in food crops.

2019 ◽  
Vol 20 (10) ◽  
pp. 2391 ◽  
Jiayang Xu ◽  
Qiansi Chen ◽  
Pingping Liu ◽  
Wei Jia ◽  
Zheng Chen ◽  

Salinity is one of the most severe forms of abiotic stress and affects crop yields worldwide. Plants respond to salinity stress via a sophisticated mechanism at the physiological, transcriptional and metabolic levels. However, the molecular regulatory networks involved in salt and alkali tolerance have not yet been elucidated. We developed an RNA-seq technique to perform mRNA and small RNA (sRNA) sequencing of plants under salt (NaCl) and alkali (NaHCO3) stress in tobacco. Overall, 8064 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 33 differentially expressed microRNAs (DE miRNAs) were identified in response to salt and alkali stress. A total of 1578 overlapping DEGs, which exhibit the same expression patterns and are involved in ion channel, aquaporin (AQP) and antioxidant activities, were identified. Furthermore, genes involved in several biological processes, such as “photosynthesis” and “starch and sucrose metabolism,” were specifically enriched under NaHCO3 treatment. We also identified 15 and 22 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in response to NaCl and NaHCO3, respectively. Analysis of inverse correlations between miRNAs and target mRNAs revealed 26 mRNA-miRNA interactions under NaCl treatment and 139 mRNA-miRNA interactions under NaHCO3 treatment. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of tobacco to salinity stress.

2018 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-15
Viviana Jaramillo ◽  
Carlos Vintimilla ◽  
Andrés F. Torres ◽  
Venancio Arahana ◽  
María de Lourdes Torres

The Andean “tree tomato” (Solanum betaceum) is an exotic fruit crop endemic to the high Andes, but principally cultivated in Colombia, Peru and Ecuador. The species displays broad agro-ecological adaptability and has proven resilient to different marginality factors, including high soil-salinity. This study presents a preliminary exploration of the genetic mechanisms underlying salinity tolerance in S. betaceum. To this end, we selected two S. betaceum genotypes contrasting in their ability to tolerate high salinity in vitro, and used differential display analysis to compare overall differences in gene expression between salinity-stressed and unstressed (control) plants in both genotypes. Overall, 171 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were identified; 30 of which showed homology with candidate genes associated with abiotic stress tolerance in different species. These were ascribed putative roles in stressresponse, photosynthesis, cellular metabolism and cell wall metabolism. Several identified DETs (22 in total) also showed homology to proteins of unknown function. These sequences warrant further research for potentially novel abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms. Despite its inherent limitations, differential display analysis allowed us to identify and validate (via RT-qPCR) 3 salinity-stress induced DETs. Prospectively, expanding our analyses via the validation of additional DETs would likely contribute to the identification of genes which can be used as proxies for a better understanding of the regulatory, metabolic and physiological mechanisms used by S. betaceum to respond and adapt to salinity stress.

Agronomy ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 31 ◽  
Mirza Hasanuzzaman ◽  
M. Bhuyan ◽  
Kamrun Nahar ◽  
Md. Hossain ◽  
Jubayer Mahmud ◽  

Among the plant nutrients, potassium (K) is one of the vital elements required for plant growth and physiology. Potassium is not only a constituent of the plant structure but it also has a regulatory function in several biochemical processes related to protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and enzyme activation. Several physiological processes depend on K, such as stomatal regulation and photosynthesis. In recent decades, K was found to provide abiotic stress tolerance. Under salt stress, K helps to maintain ion homeostasis and to regulate the osmotic balance. Under drought stress conditions, K regulates stomatal opening and helps plants adapt to water deficits. Many reports support the notion that K enhances antioxidant defense in plants and therefore protects them from oxidative stress under various environmental adversities. In addition, this element provides some cellular signaling alone or in association with other signaling molecules and phytohormones. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding K-induced abiotic stress tolerance in plants, the exact molecular mechanisms of these protections are still under investigation. In this review, we summarized the recent literature on the biological functions of K, its uptake, its translocation, and its role in plant abiotic stress tolerance.

2020 ◽  
Vol 21 (6) ◽  
pp. 2177 ◽  
Bo Li ◽  
Jia-Cheng Zheng ◽  
Ting-Ting Wang ◽  
Dong-Hong Min ◽  
Wen-Liang Wei ◽  

Vascular plant one-zinc-finger (VOZ) transcription factor, a plant specific one-zinc-finger-type transcriptional activator, is involved in regulating numerous biological processes such as floral induction and development, defense against pathogens, and response to multiple types of abiotic stress. Six VOZ transcription factor-encoding genes (GmVOZs) have been reported to exist in the soybean (Glycine max) genome. In spite of this, little information is currently available regarding GmVOZs. In this study, GmVOZs were cloned and characterized. GmVOZ genes encode proteins possessing transcriptional activation activity in yeast cells. GmVOZ1E, GmVOZ2B, and GmVOZ2D gene products were widely dispersed in the cytosol, while GmVOZ1G was primarily located in the nucleus. GmVOZs displayed a differential expression profile under dehydration, salt, and salicylic acid (SA) stress conditions. Among them, GmVOZ1G showed a significantly induced expression in response to all stress treatments. Overexpression of GmVOZ1G in soybean hairy roots resulted in a greater tolerance to drought and salt stress. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) soybean hairy roots suppressing GmVOZ1G were more sensitive to both of these stresses. Under drought treatment, soybean composite plants with an overexpression of hairy roots had higher relative water content (RWC). In response to drought and salt stress, lower malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and higher peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were observed in soybean composite seedlings with an overexpression of hairy roots. The opposite results for each physiological parameter were obtained in RNAi lines. In conclusion, GmVOZ1G positively regulates drought and salt stress tolerance in soybean hairy roots. Our results will be valuable for the functional characterization of soybean VOZ transcription factors under abiotic stress.

Plants ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (7) ◽  
pp. 834
Abel Lidón-Soto ◽  
Eva Núñez-Delegido ◽  
Iván Pastor-Martínez ◽  
Pedro Robles ◽  
Víctor Quesada

Plastid gene expression (PGE) must adequately respond to changes in both development and environmental cues. The transcriptional machinery of plastids in land plants is far more complex than that of prokaryotes. Two types of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases transcribe the plastid genome: a multimeric plastid-encoded polymerase (PEP), and a monomeric nuclear-encoded polymerase (NEP). A single NEP in monocots (RPOTp, RNA polymerase of the T3/T7 phage-type) and two NEPs in dicots (plastid-targeted RPOTp, and plastid- and mitochondrial-targeted RPOTmp) have been hitherto identified. To unravel the role of PGE in plant responses to abiotic stress, we investigated if Arabidopsis RPOTp could function in plant salt tolerance. To this end, we studied the sensitivity of T-DNA mutants scabra3-2 (sca3-2) and sca3-3, defective in the RPOTp gene, to salinity, osmotic stress and the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) required for plants to adapt to abiotic stress. sca3 mutants were hypersensitive to NaCl, mannitol and ABA during germination and seedling establishment. Later in development, sca3 plants displayed reduced sensitivity to salt stress. A gene ontology (GO) analysis of the nuclear genes differentially expressed in the sca3-2 mutant (301) revealed that many significantly enriched GO terms were related to chloroplast function, and also to the response to several abiotic stresses. By quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), we found that genes LHCB1 (LIGHT-HARVESTING CHLOROPHYLL a/b-BINDING1) and AOX1A (ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE 1A) were respectively down- and up-regulated in the Columbia-0 (Col-0) salt-stressed plants, which suggests the activation of plastid and mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde signaling. The transcript levels of genes RPOTp, RPOTmp and RPOTm significantly increased in these salt-stressed seedlings, but this enhanced expression did not lead to the up-regulation of the plastid genes solely transcribed by NEP. Similar to salinity, carotenoid inhibitor norflurazon (NF) also enhanced the RPOTp transcript levels in Col-0 seedlings. This shows that besides salinity, inhibition of chloroplast biogenesis also induces RPOTp expression. Unlike salt and NF, the NEP genes were significantly down-regulated in the Col-0 seedlings grown in ABA-supplemented media. Together, our findings demonstrate that RPOTp functions in abiotic stress tolerance, and RPOTp is likely regulated positively by plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling, which is triggered when chloroplast functionality is perturbed by environmental stresses, e.g., salinity or NF. This suggests the existence of a compensatory mechanism, elicited by impaired chloroplast function. To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest the role of a nuclear-encoded plastid-RNA polymerase in salt stress tolerance in plants.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 173
Abeer F. Desouky ◽  
Ahmed H. Ahmed ◽  
Hartmut Stützel ◽  
Hans-Jörg Jacobsen ◽  
Yi-Chen Pao ◽  

Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are known to play relevant roles in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we characterize the response of transgenic faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants encoding a PR10a gene from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to salinity and drought. The transgene was under the mannopine synthetase (pMAS) promoter. PR10a-overexpressing faba bean plants showed better growth than the wild-type plants after 14 days of drought stress and 30 days of salt stress under hydroponic growth conditions. After removing the stress, the PR10a-plants returned to a normal state, while the wild-type plants could not be restored. Most importantly, there was no phenotypic difference between transgenic and non-transgenic faba bean plants under well-watered conditions. Evaluation of physiological parameters during salt stress showed lower Na+-content in the leaves of the transgenic plants, which would reduce the toxic effect. In addition, PR10a-plants were able to maintain vegetative growth and experienced fewer photosystem changes under both stresses and a lower level of osmotic stress injury under salt stress compared to wild-type plants. Taken together, our findings suggest that the PR10a gene from potato plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance, probably by activation of stress-related physiological processes.

2019 ◽  
Ruimei Li ◽  
Yuqing Wang ◽  
Yangjiao Zhou ◽  
Tingting Qiu ◽  
Yu Song ◽  

Abstract Background The calcium (Ca2+)-dependent phospholipid binding protein annexin gene family, which is known to be related to membrane lipid and cytoskeletal components, is involved in a diverse range of biological functions. However, in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), no studies focusing on the roles of annexin genes in response to abiotic stresses, calcium, and hormones have been informed. Results 12 annexin genes were found and assigned to eight chromosomes in the cassava genome. All of the MeAnns contain a typical annexin domain with four 70-amino acid repeats. The MeAnns are classified into six groups in the phylogenetic tree. In their promoter regions, MeAnns possess at least 3 hormone response-related cis-elements and 1 abiotic stress response-related cis-acting element. MeAnn1, MeAnn2 and MeAnn5 exhibit very high levels of expression in each tested organs or tissues. By contrast, MeAnn12 exhibits very low levels in all the tested organs or tissues. qRT-PCR analysis indicates that both MeAnn5 and MeAnn9 have significantly high expression in leaves after cold, drought, and salt treatments and are highly responsive to CaCl2, GA and JA treatments. MeAnn2 and MeAnn10 are significantly downregulated in leaves by cold, drought and salt stress and negatively respond to CaCl2, GA and JA. The expression patterns of MeAnns under cold, drought, and salt stress are irregular in shoots. In roots, MeAnn1 and MeAnn9 are downregulated by cold, CaCl2 and JA treatments, while their other gene expression patterns are irregular. Conclutions In this study, we identified annexin genes in cassava and our expression profiling analysis demonstrated that cassava annexin genes responded to multiple stresses. Our results laid the foundation for further study of the function of cassava anesxin genes and provided an entry point for understanding the response mechanism of cassava to abiotic stress.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e11268
Zhaolan Han ◽  
Xiaowen Shang ◽  
Lingxia Shao ◽  
Ya Wang ◽  
Xujun Zhu ◽  

Background MYB proteins are a large group of transcription factors. The overexpression of MYB genes has been reported to improve abiotic stress tolerance in plant. However, due to the variety of plant species studied and the types of gene donors/recipients, along with different experimental conditions, it is difficult to interpret the roles of MYB in abiotic stress tolerance from published data. Methods Using meta-analysis approach, we investigated the plant characteristics involved in cold, drought, and salt stress in MYB-overexpressing plants and analyzed the degrees of influence on plant performance by experimental variables. Results The results show that two of the four measured plant parameters in cold-stressed plants, two of the six in drought-stressed, and four of the 13 in salt-stressed were significantly impacted by MYB overexpression by 22% or more, and the treatment medium, donor/recipient species, and donor type significantly influence the effects of MYB-overexpression on drought stress tolerance. Also, the donor/recipient species, donor type, and stress duration all significantly affected the extent of MYB-mediated salt stress tolerance. In summary, this study compiles and analyzes the data across studies to help us understand the complex interactions that dictate the efficacy of heterologous MYB expression designed for improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 623
Sidra Habib ◽  
Yee Yee Lwin ◽  
Ning Li

Adverse environmental factors like salt stress, drought, and extreme temperatures, cause damage to plant growth, development, and crop yield. GRAS transcription factors (TFs) have numerous functions in biological processes. Some studies have reported that the GRAS protein family plays significant functions in plant growth and development under abiotic stresses. In this study, we demonstrated the functional characterization of a tomato SlGRAS10 gene under abiotic stresses such as salt stress and drought. Down-regulation of SlGRAS10 by RNA interference (RNAi) produced dwarf plants with smaller leaves, internode lengths, and enhanced flavonoid accumulation. We studied the effects of abiotic stresses on RNAi and wild-type (WT) plants. Moreover, SlGRAS10-RNAi plants were more tolerant to abiotic stresses (salt, drought, and Abscisic acid) than the WT plants. Down-regulation of SlGRAS10 significantly enhanced the expressions of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) to reduce the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O2− and H2O2. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents were remarkably high in SlGRAS10-RNAi plants. Furthermore, the expression levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, and stress-related genes were also enhanced under abiotic stress conditions. Collectively, our conclusions emphasized the significant function of SlGRAS10 as a stress tolerate transcription factor in a certain variety of abiotic stress tolerance by enhancing osmotic potential, flavonoid biosynthesis, and ROS scavenging system in the tomato plant.

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