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Published By Lviv State University Of Life Safety

2078-6662
Updated Tuesday, 13 July 2021

Fire Safety ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 38 ◽  
pp. 24-31
Author(s):  
Yu. Rudyk ◽  
O. Nazarovets ◽  
I. Golovatchuk ◽  
N. Beznos

Introduction. Today requires the introduction and arrangement of modern enterprises automation of the technological process using various electronic and electrical equipment. The breakdown of one sensor leads to a stoppage of the technical process and thousands of losses. This equipment is sensitive to impulse overvoltages that occur for various reasons, as well as when hit by lightning. There is a misconception that the danger of lightning arises only when struck directly, forgetting about the socalled secondary phenomena, namely electromagnetic and electrostatic pulses. Pulse overvoltage is a short-term increase in voltage above the allowable value. Lightning protection systems are designed and designed to protect objects from dangerous lightning.Purpose. Given the automation of the process and the saturation of boilers with electronic and electrical equipment, there is a high risk of lightning and high potentials, which can lead to large-scale accidents. The purpose of this article is to validate the risk indicators for the boiler environment that occur during a thunderstorm.Methods. The use of various methods of calculation, assessment and ordering of risks during the design and layout of the system allows to implementation system lightning protection of buildings, equipment and people. General principles of risk assessment for the boiler environment must take into account: risk and determine the need for protection; the contribution of various risk components to the overall risk; the effect of various protection measures to reduce risk; selection of protection measures taking into account their economic efficiency.Results. Neglecting the high risk of a dangerous event leads to excessive damage and m irreparable losses, with which a person or community will not be able to achieve sustainable development. Therefore, it is a comprehensive, systematic approach to achieving safety, starting from the assessment stage, should take into account both the characteristics of the hazard, including a fire in the relevant facilities, and personal, the individual risk of death or injury. Lightning is an unpredictable natural event, no one in the world fully understands the mechanism of lightning and it is impossible to provide 100% protection under any circumstances under any standardization. For this purpose, the following calculations are given: loss of human life, including injuries; loss of the ability to provide public services; losses of cultural heritage and economic value of the building (structure) and economic losses required for the installation and operation of the system. Based on the obtained data, it is seen how the reduction of each risk is achieved depending on the proposed solution and the economic effect in general.Conclusion. Statistics on deaths and injuries from lightning hazards, losses from damage to property, buildings and struc-tures confirm that in risk assessment, which is standardized in DSTU EN 62305-2, it is necessary to introduce a methodology that would meet the conditions of Ukraine. The arrangement of the lightning protection system depends on the risk assessment, the reaction of the owner, the influence of control bodies. Therefore, it is important to decide on fire protection measures in lightning risk assessment procedures, but it can also be taken regardless of the results of the risk assessment where there is a desire to avoid unacceptable risk. Equipment that is often associated with two different services, e.g. power lines and data lines suffer a lot of surge damage. This case is not covered by the RX risk component. However, appropriate protection measures can be selected and established (see IEC 62305-4).


Fire Safety ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 38 ◽  
pp. 32-37
Author(s):  
V. Tovarianskyi ◽  
I. Adolf ◽  
V. Petrovskyi

Formulation of the problem. Most of the fabrics used in the technological processes of garment enterprises are classified as combustible materials and are part of the fire load, which threatens the outbreak and rapid spread of fires in the premises of garment factories. Therefore, it is important to study the indicators of the fire hazard of fabrics to identify the most dangerous of them, as well as to increase the efficiency of fire safety at sewing enterprises.The purpose of the work is to obtain the dependences of the values of ignition and self-ignition temperatures of cotton fabrics on the composition of cotton.Results. It was found that the crushed 100% cotton fabric flamed best, and the worst − solid polyester as a fabric without cotton. The lowest value of the temperature at which ignition was observed was 215°C for cotton (100%, shredded fabric), and if this value is reduced - there were failures, which are caused in particular by the fact that at lower temperatures flammable vapours are no formed in concentrations sufficient for combustion. It was found that the ignition / spontaneous combustion temperatures for a solid sample of the fabric with a composition of 100% cotton are 235°C/420°C, and for a solid sample of the fabric with a composition of 100% polyester − 360°C/500°C, respectively. Ignition / spontaneous com-bustion temperatures for finely divided fabrics are 8,5%/4,78% (cotton fabric) and 2.8%/6% (polyester) lower than the values obtained for whole fabrics.Results. According to the results of the analysis of the most common fabrics (table 1) used in garment enterprises. Identified that the biggest fire hazard is inherent containing cotton. The lowest ignition temperature is observed for cotton (100% shredded fabric) and is 215°C, which is 1,63 times less than the ignition temperature of polyester (0% cotton, shredded fabric). The lowest self-ignition temperature is also observed for cotton (100% shredded fabric) and is 400°C, which is 1,18 less than the self-ignition temperature of polyester (0% cotton, shredded fabric).


Fire Safety ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 38 ◽  
pp. 12-17
Author(s):  
O. Miller ◽  
A. Kharchuk

Introduction. The concept of the SES stipulates that officials exercising state supervision (control) are obliged to detect and prevent violations of fire and technogenic safety requirements established by law [14]. Іn such situations, he bears full responsibility for violation of the requirements of fire, technogenic safety established by the legislation.Purpose. To propose an algorithm of actions of authorized officials during state supervision (control) in the field of technogenic and fire safety during the practical implementation of the provisions of the Civil Protection Code of Ukraine (further- the CZU Code) and the Law of Ukraine "On Basic Principles of State Supervision (Control)" Dated April 5, 2007 (further- Memorandum № 877).Methods. Analysis of existing regulations governing the implementation of state supervision (control) in the field of tech-nogenic and fire safety and its practical implementation by authorized officials of the SESResults. Ways to improve the activities of state supervision (control) in the field of fire and technogenic safety and the powers of officials to implement it are considered. The main directions of implementation of preventive measures by state supervision bodies are given. The necessity of using a new approach to the state management of fire, technogenic safety and civil protection is highlighted. Conclusion. Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine "On approval of the Instruction on registration of materials on administrative offences and recognition as invalid of some orders of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine" from 27.07.2016 № 725 should be supplemented with a clause on the interaction of article 185-14КУпАП. "Creation of obstacles in the activity of authorized officials of the central body of executive power, which implements the state policy on state supervision (control) in the field of fire and technogenic safety, related to conducting inspections".  


Fire Safety ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 38 ◽  
pp. 38-48
Author(s):  
R. Yakovchuk

Purpose. Using FDS modelling to investigate the influence of external vertical enclosing structures on the spread of fire on the surface of external wall structures with facade insulation with combustible insulation.Methods. Using the software package Pyrosim performed тumerical modelling of the dynamics of development and spread of fire on the surface of the thermal insulation and finishing system, which serves as a user shell for the program Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). To visualize the results of calculations, the software module of the PyroSim Smoke view system was used, which allows building appropriate graphical representations of temperature distributions. This system also allows you to monitor the dynamics of temperature fields and reproduce the heating process with animation.Results. With the help of computer modelling of fire test parameters of facade insulation system for fire propagation in FDS environment, numerical and graphical indicators were obtained by computer simulation of the fire test parameters of the facade insulation system for fire propagation in the FDS environment. They characterize the process of occurrence, spread and development of fire by the surface of the facade insulation system. Also, we established the influence of external vertical enclosing designs on a fire surface of outside walls with a warming of a facade by a combustible heater. The obtained results of numerical modelling of the parameters of the fire test of the facade insulation system for the propagation of fire in the FDS environment indicate that the overall standard deviation in the theoretical data was higher than the results of experimental stud-ies. Thus, the presence in the structure of a fragment of the building vertical wall (inner corners of the building) creates a “shielding effect”, i.e. the flame emanating from the window is reflected and the temperature on the surface of external walls with facade insulation rises significantly. Thus, for thermocouples T15-T17 the temperature rises by 140-220 °C; for thermo-couples T19-T21 – by 180-350 °C; for thermocouples T27-T29 – by 110-190 °C, respectively.In addition, the presence of external vertical enclosing structures on the facade of the building contributes to the increase in temperature and inside the structures of external walls with facade insulation, as evidenced by the readings of thermocouples T33 and T35 – an increase of 50-100 °C; thermocouples T36 and T38 – increase by 50-180 °C.Practical value. The results of numerical simulations obtained by the author are aimed at the use of design organizations in the installation of fire belts using noncombustible mineral wool boards in the inner corners of the building as insulation in the presence of window and balcony openings to prevent fire from spreading on facade systems in residential buildings.


Fire Safety ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 38 ◽  
pp. 4-11
Author(s):  
O. Lazarenko ◽  
V.-P. Parkhomenko ◽  
O. Shkaraputa

Introduction. The growing demand and use of vehicles on alternative fuels pose several challenges to humanity. Starting from the development and implementation of technological processes and algorithms for safe production, transportation, storage in the large capacity of lithiumion elements (batteries) and energy sources under high pressure (hydrogen cylinders) and ending with the process of final processing and reuse of the above-mentioned components of vehicles on alternative sources energy.The purpose and objectives of the study. The purpose of the work is to research the readiness and activities of fire and rescue units for acting as intended, namely - the elimination of possible (potential) threats in the event of emergencies on vehicles with alternative fuels. To achieve this goal it is necessary to determine the current group of vehicles on alternative fuels; describe the main danger of such vehicles; to develop an appropriate conceptual (imitation) model of actions of fire and rescue units in case of actions on purpose on similar vehicles.Methods. To achieve the goal and objectives of the study used theoretical research methods, which included analysis of the main dangers of vehicles on alternative fuels, generalization of the results of the study with their following systematization to achieve the goal of the study.Results. According to the literature review results, the probable hazards associated with the elimination of emergencies at EV and HFCEV were identified. To protect the personal fire and rescue units involved in the elimination of such emergencies, an algorithm of rescuers' actions was developed in case of the threat of fire of the EV battery, the threat of ignition of hydrogen tanks in the HFCEV, the threat of ignition of the battery.Conclusions. The presented conceptual (imitation) model of actions of fire and rescue units in case of possible dangers associated with EV and HFCV provide a scientific basis. For further development and development of a decision support system that can be expressed in the form of application software. For further development of a life cycle model of emergency response projects on vehicles with alternative fuels.


Fire Safety ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 38 ◽  
pp. 18-23
Author(s):  
P. Pastuhov ◽  
V. Petrovskii ◽  
O. Lavrenyuk ◽  
B. Mykhalitchko

Introduction. The rapid growth of production rates and the use of polymer materials in various fields has brought about an increase in the number of fires caused by the ignition of polymer products. Among the most common polymer materials are materials based on epoxy resins. They are used in such industries as construction, electrical engineering and radio engineering, shipbuilding, mechanical engineering, including automotive, aerospace and rocketry, etc. Due to its organic structure, high content of carbon and hydrogen, epoxy polymers are very combustible. Their combustion is characterized by high temperature and more flame propagation rate. And it is accompanied by significant smoke formation and the release of large amounts of toxic products. Therefore, the search for new ways to reduce combustibility and maintain the proper level of performance is one of the priorities in the development and implementation of new epoxy polymer materials in various fields. Purpose. The work aims to obtain epoxy-amine composites and to discover the effect of flame retardant-hardener on their fire hazard and physical and mechanical properties.Methods. In work used Modern research methods. The flame propagation rate was determined by UL94, the coefficient of smoke was measured by ASTM E662-19, physical and mechanical properties were evaluated by measuring parameters such as surface hardness, tensile strength, water absorption and chemical resistance.Results. The parameters of fire danger of epoxy-amine composites with different content of flame retardant (0, 5, 16 and 80 mass parts) were studied. The results of experimental studies showed that the flame propagation rate and the smoke formation coefficient in the mode of smouldering and combustion are minimal for epoxy-amine composites containing 16 and 80 mass parts of flame retardant. Such compositions have higher surface hardness and tensile strength. And they also well as more resistant to water and aggressive environments compared to unmodified ones.Conclusion. The paper presents a simple and commercially attractive method of obtaining epoxy-amine composites con-taining different amounts of flame retardant – copper(II) sulfate. It is necessary, the obtained samples of the composites are homogeneous in structure. These should be considered as individual chemicals, not as mixtures. Chemical bonding of all components of the composites, namely the appearance of additional (compared to the unmodified composite) Cu(II)–N coordination bonds in the polymer framework DGEBA/DETA-CuSO4, is reflected in the enhanced physical and mechanical properties and fire hazard reduction for this type of composite materials.


Fire Safety ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 37 ◽  
pp. 44-51
Author(s):  
E. Hulida ◽  
V. Sharуу

Introduction. Fires in closed premises of production and storage facilities are the most dangerous, because they hold large areas with a significant fire load. The current direction of providing a fire safety system at production and storage facilities in closed premises is to eliminate the conditions of the rapid development of fire and minimizing its effect through the use of fire curtains. This method of fire protection is practically not used in closed premises of production and storage facilities at the present stage. In most cases, fire partitions are used in such situations. Therefore, a topic issue today is the research of limiting the development of fires with the use of fire partitions and minimizing fire effects.Purpose. Investigate the process of spreading the fire in closed premises of production and storage facilities by using fire partitions to limit the speed of fire spread. Problem statement and solution. The following tasks must be solved to provide fire protection of production and storage facilities:1. to investigate the process of fire spread in closed premises of production and storage facilities without the use of fire partitions;2. to investigate the impact of fire partitions use on fire rate.Two possible modes of development fire in the premises are considered to solve the first problem: 1) with the presence of sufficient air (oxygen), with fire occurred in regulated fire load; 2) with insufficient air (oxygen), with fire occurred in regulated ventilation.It is necessary to choose the material and fire partition design accordingly to solve the second problem. The results of experimental studies [11] showed that fire partitions vermiculite-silicate plates can be used for various building structures manufacturing. Closed production and storage facilities structure analysis showed that these premises are constructed in most cases with a grid of columns 9Х12 m.Conclusions and proposals:1) There is only the first mode of fire with sufficient oxygen (air) in closed premises of production and storage facilities with a total area of more than 5000 m2 in the process of fire. The fire that occurred is regulated only by the fire load.2) The use of fire partitions between sections of the premises of production and storage facilities reduces the probability of fire spreading in the premises by about 3 times.3) It is necessary to continue research work in this direction to obtain more significant results of the process of development and spread of fire in the premises of production and storage facilities.


Fire Safety ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 37 ◽  
pp. 72-76
Author(s):  
O. V. Khlevnoy ◽  
D. Kharyshyn ◽  
O. Nazarovets

Introduction. In 2015-2020, the number of inclusive groups in preschools and classes in secondary schools of Ukraine increased almost 7 times. For our country, inclusive education is an innovative phenomenon, so its implementation raises many problems. One of the most significant problems is low level of fire safety measures. Сhild death from fires in Ukraine exceeds the European Union numbers by more than 4 times. As children with special needs are more vulnerable during fires, research on fire safety in inclusive groups is an urgent task.The purpose of the article is to identify problematic issues of calculating the time of evacuation in case of fires in educational institutions with inclusive groups based on statistical data, regulatory framework, and modern scientific developments analysis.The current regulations governing the organization of inclusive education in preschool and secondary school have been analyzed. Building codes that set the requirements for inclusive buildings and structures have been analyzed. Standards and methods for calculating the evacuation time from buildings have been also considered. The comparative analysis of the possibilities of the modern application software intended for evacuation time calculation has been carried out. According to the analysis, the main problematic issues have been identified.Conclusion. Currently, some necessary data about children with special needs are not available. That fact doesn't allow calculating with exact accuracy the evacuation time in case of fire in educational institutions with inclusive groups. A comparative analysis of the calculations made with the help of applied computer programs shows that in most of them there is no possibility to take into account the presence of children with special needs on the premises. In some software products, where such a possibility is provided, the movement parameters of children with special needs do not differ from the movement parameters of adults with disabilities. Therefore, determining the values of the horizontal projection area of children with different special needs, as well as the study of their speeds and the influence of their presence on the intensity of the general movements is an urgent technical and scientific task that requires further experimental and theoretical research.


Fire Safety ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 37 ◽  
pp. 16-23
Author(s):  
Ya. Ballo ◽  
R. Yakovchuk ◽  
V. Nizhnyk ◽  
O. Sizikov ◽  
A. Kuzyk

Purpose. The research based on FDS modeling aims to identify design parameters influence of the façade firefighting eaves at fire compartment border on the prevention of fire spreading in high-rise buildings.Methods. To calculate the temperature in high-rise building model Pyrosim computer system is used which serves as the user's shell application Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). This FDS system uses numerical algorithms to solve the complete Navier-Stokes differential equation system to determine the temperature and other hazardous factors during a fire.Results. This article deals with the results of using the FDS modeling to substantiate fire-fighting eaves design parameters, which are extended beyond the facade and are located at fire compartment border along the perimeter of high-rise buildings with a conventional height of more than 73.5 m. A comparative analysis of eaves' design parameters and their effect on the temperature distribution along the building facade during a possible fire was conducted. Comparative dependences of tempera-ture distribution on building facades were constructed, as well as their heating areas were determined.Scientific novelty. According to national and foreign regulations requirement analytical research and information sources on the of high-rise buildings design, fire safety requirements to the high-rise public buildings facades with a conventional height of more than 73.5 m were scientifically substantiated in terms of the requirements formation for limiting the fire spreading, smoke and building facades exterior constructions heating.Practical value. Obtained data was analyzed as a result of FDS modeling under the same reference conditions to provide a conclusion on facade fire-fighting eaves design parameters effectiveness at fire compartment border and further improvement ways of their construction and fire spread prevention in high-rise buildings.


Fire Safety ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 37 ◽  
pp. 37-43
Author(s):  
E. Нulida ◽  
Ya. Kozak ◽  
M. Vasiliev

Introduction. Statistical analysis of fires at storage, refining and transportation facilities for oil and petroleum products over the past 20 years shows that out of 200 fires, 92% of them occur in land tanks. In a fire, liquid combustion in the tank is a diffusion combustion of a jet of steam in the air. In the process of burning the liquid in the tank changes the mechanical properties of its metal wall, which affects its fire resistance duration. In the event of a fire in the tank, the drywall may be destroyed. Destruction of dry tank wall can lead to oil spills and cascading fire. Therefore, the main problem is to determine the fire duration before the destruction of the dry wall of the tank, i.e. its fire resistance.Purpose. Develop a method for determining the fire resistance of the dry wall of the storage tank of oil and petroleum products.Methods. To develop a method for determining the fire resistance of storage tank dry wall of oil and petroleum prod-ucts, it is necessary to solve the following problems:1) to determine the temperature effect on sheet material of tank dry wall on its strength;2) to obtain the dependence for determining the duration of time before the occurrence of ultimate destructive stresses of the sheet material of tank dry wall;3) to obtain the dependence for determining the time of fire resistance of tank dry wall of oil and petroleum products in the event of a fire.To solve the first problem, the temperature influence of the sheet steel used to make the tank wall on the yield strength σT was established.To solve the second problem, a dependence was obtained to determine the length of time before the occurrence of critical temperatures at which the destruction of the sheet material of tank dry wall is possible.To solve the third problem, a block diagram of the algorithm for determining the fire resistance of tank dry wall in case of fire was developed, on the basis of which a package of applications was developed.Conclusions and specific suggestions:1. The influence of the temperature of the sheet material of tank dry wall on its strength is established. The research results showed that the temperature of the tank drywall material in the range of 690-710 ºC is critical and it can lead to its destruction.2. The results of the research allowed to obtain the dependence for determining the duration of time to critical temper-atures occurrence at which the destruction of the sheet material of tank dry wall. The results of calculations for the tank RVS-5000 showed that its fire resistance varies within τv = 13…15 minutes. Of course, this value of fire resistance for tank dry wall is very small in terms of the fire extinguishing process. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and implement certain measures to increase the fire resistance of tank dry wall.3. To determine the time of fire resistance of tank dry wall storage of oil and petroleum products in the event of a fire was obtained dependence, which allows to determine the temperature T in ºC from the duration of burning the tank τ per minute, the height of the dry wall h0 in m upper edge. The research results allowed to develop a block diagram of the algorithm for solving this problem, as well as a package of applications based on it, which are written in the C # programming language.


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