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Author(s):  
Shefali Giri ◽  
Priyanka Paul Madhu ◽  
Kumar Gaurav Chhabra ◽  
Gopika Mahure ◽  
Shailey Chandak

To assess the cariogenic potential of almond milk, soya milk, coconut milk and bovine milk, was evaluated to check ability to enable Streptococcus mutans association formed, acid manufacturing, as well as their ability to buffer pH transforms. The baseline non stimulated whole salivary sample (2.5-5 ml) will be collected from the students in the morning at least 1 hr after breakfast. The salivary samples (pre-test and post-test) will be collected and tested for the CFUs. Salivary samples are transported in a plastic container to the microbiological laboratory. They were then tested for the number of CFUs for S. mutans using mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. Soya milk promoted much more biofilm development, whereas sugar free almond milk promoted a little. When pH test was performed, sugar free almond milk had the lowest cation exchange capacity, whereas bovine milk had the maximum cation exchange capacity.


Author(s):  
A. A. S. P. R. Andriani ◽  
Idris Sharif ◽  
Bohari M Yamin ◽  
S. A. M. P. Suryani ◽  
Krisnawan Kalimutu

Abstract. Although Trichoderma spp has been widely used in the SRI technique of rice cultivation the sources of Trichoderma that can adapt well to the local environment have been an interesting issue for quite some time.  It is commonly agreed that the local Trichoderma is much more preferred to be used for rice cultivation. In the present study, the Trichoderma from the soil of a rice field in Sukawati District,  Bali where conventional fertilizer and pesticide has been applied for a very long time was isolated.  After macroscopic observations (green color and sweet coconut smell ) the single isolated fungi have very much resembled Trichoderma Harzianum. 2 mL of the Trichoderma Harzianum solution was introduced in a plastic container containing 200 g half-boiled rice. After seven days the rice in the plastic appeared green. This sample will be used to produce more T. Harzianum for rice cultivation. One of the T.Harzianum treated rice hosts was coated with gold and subjected to SEM observation. Very high populated T. Harzianum fungi were observed. It was  dominated by hyphae. No conidia and conidiophores were spotted. Instead, quite a high density of spherical and oval shape spores was observed. Such a high density of T.Harzianum will certainly meet the requirement for an efficient application in the cultivation field. It would also be interesting to see the interaction between such a highly populated T.Harzianum  with other fungi or pathogens in understanding the role of Trichoderma as an antipathogen


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Author(s):  
Castañeda L ◽  

This study is on the design and method of a volume measuring device installed inside a box used to store liquids mainly wine. Current devices that store wine in boxes have inside these boxes, inner boxes regularly made of rigid cardboard and a sealed plastic receptacle, which has an outlet tap to serve the wine. The device is focused on being used in the new wine packaging in a cardboard box. The measuring device is placed at the bottom of the wine dispenser box and displays a measurement of the volume of the wine even in the box via a measurement tower. The wine storage box contains inside: the device located at the bottom of the box containing the wine (i.e., the liquid), and the plastic container containing the wine above our measuring device. The measuring device will feel the weight of the current wine content in the plastic container and will automatically move a signal indicating the level of the liquid even in the plastic container. The measurement will be visible from the outside of the box by the consumer, the device is included by a receptacle or sealed bag connected to the measurement tower. The weight measurement receptacle is sealed and made of a material with a leak-resistant layer, and which is usually irregularly oval and is filled with at least one form of gas or air and where the packing layer is shaped to fill the bottom of the container and it is placed under the bag for storage and shipping. As the pressure of the liquid weight changes, the receptacle reacts by moving a measuring marker that reflects such changes, thus measuring the current volume of the liquid in the shipping box. There are numerous patents for measuring liquids, particularly for wine, and then we present several of these patents that are the most relevant to our case


Plant Disease ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shuning Chen ◽  
Wei Sun ◽  
Huizhu Yuan ◽  
Xiaojing Yan

Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus) is an important cut flower grown globally. In 2020, gerbera plants (Redaicaoyuan, Baimawangzi, and Hongditan cultivars) with roots, crowns, and stems rot were found in a greenhouse in Nanping, Fujian, China. Approximately 30% of the 60,000 plants showed symptoms. Diseased plants were stunted with chlorotic leaves. The leaves and flower heads were wilted and withered. Brown discoloration with red to black streaks occurred in the vascular system of the crown and stem. The stem pieces (3×3 mm) showing the symptom were surface-disinfected with 1% NaClO for 1 min and washed three times with sterilized water. The stem pieces were then dried and placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 25℃ inside a dark chamber. Ten single-spored isolates were identified as Fusarium incarnatum based on morphological features. White to light brown mycelia were observed among the isolates on PDA medium. Falculate, multicelluar, straight to slightly curved macroconidia produced in monophialide sporodochia without distinctive foot shaped basal cell; and chlamydospores produced in some isolates (Leslie and Summerell). The size of macroconidia was 36.4 ± 5.20 × 4.6 ± 1.3 μm (n = 100) with 3 to 5 septates. Microconidia were mostly 0 to 1 septate measured 14.6 ± 1.9 × 2.6 ± 0.5 μm (n=100). Based on the morphological observation, isolates were further identified by molecular method. The ITS1/4 region combined with partial gene fragments of translation elongation factor (EF-1α, primer EF1/EF2, Geiser et al.) and calmodulin (CAM, primer CL1/CL2A, O’Donnell.) from the isolates were amplified and sequenced. All of the three tested isolates showed identical gene sequences. Sequences amplified from one represented isolate FIN-1 were submitted to Genbank. BLAST searches revealed that ITS1/4 (MW527088), EF-1α (MW556488), and CAM (MW556487) had 99.22%, 99.53%, 99.42% identity compared to F. incarnatum (MN480497, MN233577, and LN901596, respectively) in GenBank. FUSARIUM-ID (Geiser et al. 2004) analysis also showed 99 to 100% similarity with sequences of the F. incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) (FD_01636 for CAM, FD_01643 for EF-1α). The phylogenetic analysis was conducted using neighbor-joining algorithm based on the ITS, EF-1α, and CAM gene sequences. The isolate was clustered with F. incarnatum clade. Then, the pathogenicity of the fungus was confirmed by performing Koch’s postulates. Pure single-spored cultures were grown on carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) medium for sporulation. G. jamesonii plants used for pathogenicity tests were grown on sterilized potting soil in a plastic container to the ten-leaf stage prior to inoculation. Spores harvested from the CMC medium were adjusted to a concentration of 1×105 conidial/ml. Twelve healthy rooted gerbera seedlings were inoculated by drenching 10 ml of the conidial suspension onto roots. Twelve gerbera seedlings treated with 10 ml sterile water served as control treatments. Plants were grown in the glasshouse at temperatures of 23°C, relative humidity >70%, and 16 h light per day. After 10 days, blackening stems and withered leaf edges began to appear on inoculated seedlings, whereas control seedlings remained healthy. F. incarnatum was consistently re-isolated from the symptomatic stems, whereas no isolates were obtained from the control seedlings. The assay was conducted twice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of F. incarnatum causing stem and root rot on G. jamesonii.


2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. 21
Author(s):  
Ilmam Zul Fahmi ◽  
Nugroho Susetya Putra ◽  
Siwi Indarti ◽  
Satoru Sato

Waterlily aphid Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae is one of the aphids that have many hosts, including Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Monochoria vaginalis and Spirodela polyrhiza. The aim of this study was to study the effect of host shift and confirm the results  of previous studies on the effect of nitrogen and carbon factors among A. filiculoides, L. laevigatum, M. vaginalis and S. polyrhiza on the level of aphid preference and number of offspring. Analysis of the nitrogen and carbon content of plants was also carried out to confirm the preference and number of offspring produced by aphids. The study began with maintaining aphids on the four tested hosts, up to the 4th generation. Twenty five individuals were randomly selected from each host, then released on the inner wall of the plastic container (14 x 7.5 x 15 cm3) which was filled with four hosts arranged side by side. Observations were made every 24 hours up to 97 hours starting from the first hour after treatment. Observations after 97 hours showed that waterlily aphids imago preferred L. laevigatum the most (49.28%), then on M. vaginalis (20.43%), S. polyrhiza (16.33%), and A. filiculoides (1.75%). Meanwhile, the number of offspring produced by each group of aphids that selected on four hosts were: 46.65 individuals on L. laevigatum, 37.8 individuals on M. vaginalis, 19 individuals on S. polyrhiza, and 0.6 individuals on A. filiculoides. The analysis showed that the highest nitrogen content was found in M. vaginalis (4.16%), followed by S. polyrhiza (3.71%), L. laevigatum (2.33%), and A. filiculoides (2.08%).


2021 ◽  
Vol 797 (1) ◽  
pp. 012009
Author(s):  
Y Lopulalan ◽  
J A Pattikawa ◽  
I Ode ◽  
M Wawo ◽  
Y Natan ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-6
Author(s):  
Omosowone Olajumoke

Piper guineense fruits were purchased, sun-dried (30±2oC) for 10 days and ground into fine powder. Fifteen (15) pieces of Clarias gariepinus (300 ± 5.0 g) were procured and smoke-dried in the laboratory using a charcoal-powered smoking kiln at 65oC for 10 hours. Each smoke-dried fish sample was placed in a plastic container with perforated lids covered with muslin cloth and Piper guineense fruit meal was sprinkled at varying quantities (0.0 g, 2.5 g, 5.0 g, 7.5 g and 10.0 g). Ten (10) adults of Dermestes maculatus bred from highly infested smoke-dried fish samples were introduced into each container and covered air-tight for seven (7) days. Mortality of D. maculatus was significantly different (p = .05) in all treatments and increased with an increase in the quantity of P. guineense and number of days. Mortality ranged between 73.33 and 100 % in treated groups while none was recorded in the control. Chemical compositions in treatments showed an increase in crude protein, lipids and lower moisture content at higher inclusion levels. This study showed that P. guineense can prolong the shelf-life of smoke-dried C. gariepinus against D. maculatus while retaining its nutritional composition. Key words: Dermestes maculatus, Piper guineense, smoke-dried, Clarias gariepinus


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 234-239
Author(s):  
A. G. Lapirov ◽  
E. A. Belyakov ◽  
O. A. Lebedeva

Choosing optimum conditions for plants of the Pedicularis genus to productively germinate and undergo the initial stages of development is currently a relevant problem in the search of solutions to successfully grow these taxa. For the experiments, seeds of Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum L. (Lamiales, Orobanchaceae) were collected in the first decade of September in the vicinity of Chashnitskoe Lake. The study of specifics of germination of seeds and the initial stages of the development of P. sceptrum-carolinum was carried out in controlled laboratory conditions in a climate chamber with illumination (1,200–1,500 lux, photoperiod of 9/15, temperature of 23–25 °С). After a month-long storage of seeds in their fruit capsules in the laboratory conditions, the greatest germination (83.3–93.3%) was achieved after their subsequent dry maintenance (taken out of the fruits) in a refrigerator at the temperature of +2…+3 ºС for 3 or 6 months. Lower values of final germination were obtained after maintaining dry seeds at the temperature of –24…–28 ºС for 3 months. Increasing periods of such storage up to six months led to decrease in the final germination and energy of germination. After-ripening lasting different periods provided lower values of the two most important parameters – final germination and energy of germination, even in cases of quite long periods of dry storage in the laboratory. The initial stages of the development of plants from seeds of P. sceptrum-carolinum, which had undergone 3-month stratification in a refrigerator, were studied during the period of 2.0 (2.5) months in different conditions: Petri dishes on moistened filter paper, and in glass vessels with settled tap water, in soil in a plastic container (pure groups of sowed seeds) and also in soil sown together with seeds of Avena sativa L., with seeds put singly into a plastic block of 9 cassettes. The study revealed morphological differences in plants that had developed over the two-months growth, in each variant of the experiment. We recorded fragmentary development of haustorial hairs on the lateral roots of the plants in the pure sown group and also the haustorium in the group sown together with common oat. We achieved no further development and the plants died. The plants grew for a longer period (2.5 months) in the pure sown groups, which then died as well. The study we performed may be a basis for preparing successful introduction and cultivation of P. sceptrum-carolinum, which would be an important source of preservation of a species that raises concerns on account of the rapid decreases in its populations, narrowing of its range and rare occurrence.


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