Dayak onions (Eleutherine palmifolia L. Merr) is one plant that has been proven to have benefits as an antioxidant. The Dayak extract is formulated in the self nano emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) because the extract has low water solubility. The aims this study to develop the SNEDDS formulation system by testing its antioxidant activity. We determined whether there was an increase in antioxidant activity when formulated in the form of SNEDDS or not. The results were then compared with a solution of Dayak onions extract without using SNEDDS. The obtained formula was the optimal result that has been done before using the D-optimal mixture design method. The results of the components consisted of 50 mg of Dayak extract, 10 % caprylic triglyceride as oil, 1% tween 80, and 6,60 % transcutol as a combination surfactant and 12,40 % propylene glycol as co-surfactant. Antioxidant activity testing was carried out using the DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method. The antioxidant test using the DPPH method was done with two samples, namely the extract solution and Dayak onion extract SNEDDS. We elaborated the research by using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Each sample was made into five concentrations, namely 30 ppm, 60 ppm, 90 ppm, 120 ppm, and 150 ppm, and carried out three times replications. The results showed that the IC50 value in the Dayak onion extract solution was 227,19 ppm (very low), while for the SNEDDS solution for the Dayak onion extract the IC50 value obtained was 38,97 ppm (very strong). The analysis was carried out next using an independent T-Test to obtain the results. There was no significant difference between the extract solution and the SNEDDS solution of Dayak onion extract.
Colocasia esculenta L. (Schoot) is a widely used plant in developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Central America. The parts of the Colocasia plant that can be used are the tubers, stalks, and leaves. There has not been much research on the content of this plant. The study aims to determine the flavonoids and terpenoids in the ethanol extract of Colocasia stalk and leaves. The maceration method with 70% ethanol solvent and drying with vacuum evaporator. Determination of flavonoid levels based on quercetin marker compounds using AlCl3 reagent by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The terpenoid levels were carried out gravimetrically with petroleum ether as a solvent. The results showed that the ethanol extract of Colocasia stalk and leaf contained flavonoids, respectively 3.18 +0.0581% and 4.33 +0.0285%, while the results of the terpenoid levels for stalks were 7.10 +0.0676% and leaves were 8.39 +0.0023%.
Morinda citrifolia. L leaf is a plant that has the potential as an antioxidant due to the presence of compounds in the form of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds that can function as natural antioxidants. In connection with this, research was carried out to Morinda citrifolia. L formulate leaf extract in the form of effervescent granules. Morinda citrifolia leaf extract was macerated with ethanol 96% as solvent. Phytochemical screening showsthat the extract contains flavonoids, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. The extract was formulated with various concentrations of F1 (20%), F2 (25%), F3 (4%). Determination of antioxidant activity using the DPPH free radical immersion method. The results showed that the concentration in the granules influenced antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 109.05 ppm, 101.33 ppm and 73.28 ppm, respectively
Berberine is a compound that has various benefits but also has dangerous toxic effects. In Indonesia, the Regulation of the Head of the Food and Drug Supervisory Agency No. 10 of 2014 concerning the Prohibition of Producing and Circulating Traditional Medicines and Health Supplements Containing Coptis Sp, Berberis Sp, Mahonia Sp, Chelidonium Majus, Phellodendron Sp, Arcangelica Flava, Tinosporae Radix, and Catharanthus Roseus. Regulation No. 7 of 2018 (BPOM, 2018) also prohibits the presence of berberine in processed food. This research was conducted to determine the content of berberine compounds from the extract and stem fraction of Arcangelisia flava. The research was conducted by identifying the content of berberine by TLC method compared with Rf Berberine sulfate and determination of berberine content by HPLC method (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) using column C-18 (ODS). Berberine content of methanol extract, n-hexane fraction, ethyl acetate fraction and Arcangelisia Flava methanol-water fraction were 0.0040, respectively; 0.0010; 0.0041, 0.0044%.
Ethyl para-methoxycinamate (EPMS) is a major compound of Kaempferia galanga L that has anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of this study was to determine of EPMS in Kaempferiae galanga L rhizome extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and evaluated the performance of the analysis. This study included determination of system suitability, accuracy, precision, linearity and range, limit of detection (LOD) and Limit of quantitation (LOQ) and selectivity. The results of system suitability test HPLC System for EPMS analysis were as follows isocratic elution system of a mobile phase mixture of methanol: water (70:30) containing 0.1% TFA, uv detector at a wavelength of 308 nm using column C18 (150 × 4, 6mm, 5μm) flow rate 1 ml / min. From the analysis, it was found that the average EPMS content was 78.74%. Then method had linear concentration range from 5-360 ppm, with R ² = 0.9999. The LOD and LOQ were 7.0722 ppm and 21.4311 ppm respectively. The accuracy of this method that represented by % recovery was 98.02% - 101.26%. The precision of this method that expressed by Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) was 1.57%. The selectivity of this method that showed by resolution value was 2.6. Based on the results of the system suitability test and analysis performance evaluation,all parameters met the requirements.
Masons are regularly exposed to air pollution in the workplace The pollution exposure received by them is a risk factor for respiratory problems. Most of the masons had insufficient knowledge that is very important for the management of a person's illness. The purpose of this study was to determine relationship of knowledge on respiratory disorders with lung function in masons in east surabaya. This research was an observational study with a cross-sectional design with a purposive method.The research was conducted from April to July 2019 in the East Surabaya area. The variables that will be observed in this study are the level of knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and treatment and therapy regarding respiratory disorders. In this study, there were 158 respondents consisting of 79 groups with impaired lung function and 79 groups without lung function disorders. Most of the level of knowledge of both groups was good in risk factors and treatment of respiratory disease, but instead on the symptoms regarding respiratory disease. The research showed that there was a relationship between the level of knowledge about risk factors for respiratory disease (p(0.223)<0.05) and lung function, but there was no difference in knowledge about symptoms (p(0.745)<0.05) and treatment (p(0.741)<0.05) respiratory disease with pulmonary function. Therefore, it was necessary to plan further educational programs in increasing masons' knowledge of respiratory symptoms so that they could catch respiratory diseases earlier.
Indonesia has a high diversity of potential medicinal plants, which are the second-largest number of indigenous medicinal plants in the world. Syzygium polyanthum, known as Indonesian Bay Leaf or Salam, easily found, widely used in Indonesia as a spice in cooking and traditional medicine. Salam contains secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, essential oils, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, phenols, steroids, and saponins. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the main bacteria that cause commensal infection and the most common nosocomial infections. This study aims to know the antibacterial activity of the Salam ethanolic extract against Staphylococcus aureusand Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. Salam leaves were extracted by 70% ethanol in the maceration method. Antibacterial activity was conducted by the disk diffusion method. The extract exhibits moderate activity (10.51±0.3 mm) at 75% of concentration and low activity (3.69±0.4 mm) at 100% of concentration against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis respectively. The test showed that salam leaves extract had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.
Pandan leaves have been researched and have effectiveness in the treatment of burns. The process of healing burns takes a long time and cause a hard tissue because it loses its elasticity, making it difficult to penetrate. In this study, pandanus leaves were formulated into the nanovesicle carrier system, namely trasfersom. Transfersomes have the ability to deform, namely the ability to reduce the particle size 5-10 times from the original size when passing through the gaps between cells so that transfersom can increase the penetration of active substances. The three formulas used are based on the ratio of concentrations of trasfersome vesicles, namely phospholipids and span 80. Formula 1 is (90:10), Formula 2 (85:15) and Formula 3 (80:20). The best formula is determined based on transfersom characterization, including particle size and PDI (solidispersity index), zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, deformability, and TEM particle morphology. The results showed that Formula 3 (80:20) is the most stable formula with an average particle size of 730.1 ± 4.9 nm, PDI value <0.7, zeta potential - 9.94 ± 1.02 mV, efficiency absorption 80.23%, and the deformability value 6.225.
The recent public health crisis is threatening the world with the emergence of the spread of the new coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus originates from bats and is transmitted to humans through unknown intermediate animals in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Advances in technology have opened opportunities to find candidates for natural compounds capable of preventing and controlling COVID-19 infection through inhibition of spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2. This research aims to identify, evaluate, and explore the structure of spike protein macromolecules from three coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2) and their effects on Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE-2) using computational studies. Based on the identification of the three spike protein macromolecules, it was found that there was a similarity between the active binding sites of ACE-2. These observations were then confirmed using a protein-docking simulation to observe the interaction of the protein spike to the active site of ACE-2. SARS-COV-2 spike protein has the strongest bond to ACE-2, with an ACE score of −1341.85 kJ/mol. Therefore, some of this information from the results of this research can be used as a reference in the development of competitive inhibitor candidates for SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins for the treatment of COVID-19 infectious diseases.
Kafein memiliki kegunaan terapeutik yang luas, banyak digunakan di bidang farmasi sebagai analgesik, dan mengurangi demam. Kafein juga banyak ditambahkan sebagai zat penyedap pada minuman ringan seperti coca cola dan minuman energi. Konsumsi kafein yang berlebihan atau dalam jangka panjang dapat berdampak negatif bagi kesehatan. Kandungan kafein dalam minuman bervariasi menurut mereknya, dari 10 hingga 50 mg per porsi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jumlah kafein dalam minuman berkarbonasi dan minuman energi dengan menggunakan teknik ekstraksi pelarut kloroform dan teknik adsorpsi karbon aktif. Kadar kafein dalam minuman dianalisis dengan metode spektrofotometri menggunakan panjang gelombang maksimum. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah kafein dengan teknik ekstraksi pada minuman coca cola adalah (31,39 ± 0,528 mg / saji), pepsi biru (27,93 ± 0,159 mg / sajian), banteng merah (39. 79 ± 0,233 mg / porsi), dan macan kumbang (43,37 ± 0,860 mg / porsi). Teknik adsorpsi yang diperoleh pada minuman coca cola adalah (32,07 ± 0,164 mg / saji), pepsi biru (27,42 ± 0,174 mg / saji), banteng merah (31,35 ± 0,132 mg / saji), dan macan kumbang (33,83 ± 0,205 mg / saji) . Pada minuman coca cola, diperoleh hasil terbaik mendekati nilai sebenarnya seperti yang tertera pada label. Sedangkan untuk ketiga jenis minuman lainnya, jumlah kafein yang didapat lebih rendah dari yang diharapkan, dan masih di bawah batas maksimal yang diperbolehkan. Dari dua teknik yang diteliti, teknik ekstraksi masih memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan teknik adsorpsi. dan macan kumbang (33,83 ± 0,205 mg / porsi). Pada minuman coca cola, diperoleh hasil terbaik mendekati nilai sebenarnya seperti yang tertera pada label. Sedangkan untuk ketiga jenis minuman lainnya, jumlah kafein yang didapat lebih rendah dari yang diharapkan, dan masih di bawah batas maksimal yang diperbolehkan. Dari dua teknik yang diteliti, teknik ekstraksi masih memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan teknik adsorpsi. dan macan kumbang (33,83 ± 0,205 mg / porsi). Pada minuman coca cola, diperoleh hasil terbaik mendekati nilai sebenarnya seperti yang tertera pada label. Sedangkan untuk ketiga jenis minuman lainnya, jumlah kafein yang didapat lebih rendah dari yang diharapkan, dan masih di bawah batas maksimal yang diperbolehkan. Dari dua teknik yang diteliti, teknik ekstraksi masih memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan teknik adsorpsi.
Kata kunci : Kafein, Minuman, Ekstraksi, Adsorpsi, Spektrofotometri