important process
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2022 ◽  
Xinlong Xiao ◽  
Jieqiong Zhang ◽  
Viswanathan Satheesh ◽  
Fanxiao Meng ◽  
Wenlan Gao ◽  

Abstract Coordinated distribution of Pi between roots and shoots is an important process that plants use to maintain Pi homeostasis. SHR (SHORT-ROOT) is well-characterized for its function in root radial patterning1-3. Here, we demonstrate a new role of SHR in controlling phosphate (Pi) allocation from roots to shoots by regulating PHOSPHATE1 (PHO1) in the root differentiation zone. We recovered a weak mutant allele of SHR in Arabidopsis which accumulates much less Pi in the shoot and shows constitutive Pi starvation response (PSR) under Pi-sufficient condition. Besides, Pi starvation suppresses SHR protein accumulation and releases its inhibition on the HD-ZIP Ⅲ transcription factor PHB. PHB accumulates and directly binds the promoter of PHO2 to upregulate its transcription, resulting in PHO1 degradation in the xylem-pole pericycle cells. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism of how plants repress Pi translocation from roots to shoots in response to Pi starvation.

RSC Advances ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 860-868
Mi Yeon Byun ◽  
Ye Eun Kim ◽  
Jae Ho Baek ◽  
Jungho Jae ◽  
Man Sig Lee

Hydrogenation of biomass-derived furfural is an important process in biofuel production.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 107-116

The specificity of this article is the consideration not only of the completed text entitled A Duma about Brytanka, but also of the play-forming and creating process, which became possible due to the presence of drafts and draft notes to the work. Therefore, this study is conducted not only in along the lines of literary theory, but also textology. The relevance of the study is that the view from above allows us to comprehend, or even rethink, the play A Duma about Brytanka in the context of the author’s work and also in the context of the Soviet drama landscape in general. Understanding and rethinking the work of predecessors is an important process for comprehending the development of literature as a general process and its development within the national borders. The aim of the study at hand is to determine how the realities of the time and especially the accepted literary trend and historical events influenced the formation of the text of the play. The results of the study show that the original idea of A Duma about Brytanka had much more romantic features, as romanticism as a style of thinking was inherent for Yuri Yanovskyi. However, in the process of creating the play, the author began to rely on the documents that showed the real case of the social republic. The author abandoned the original version and completed the play so that it became much closer to the Soviet canon than to romanticism.

Saurabh Ravindra Nikam

Abstract: In this paper Segmentation is one the most important process which decides the success of character recognition fashion. Segmentation is used to putrefy an image of a sequence of characters into sub images of individual symbols by segmenting lines and words. In segmentation image is partitioned into multiple corridor. With respect to the segmentation of handwritten words into characters it's a critical task because of complexity of structural features and kinds in writing styles. Due to this without segmentation these touching characters, it's delicate to fete the individual characters, hence arises the need for segmentation of touching characters in a word. Then we consider Marathi words and Marathi Numbers for segmentation. The algorithm is use for Segmentation of lines and also characters. The segmented characters are also stores in result variable. First it Separate the lines and also it Separate the characters from the input image. This procedure is repeated till end of train. Keywords: Image Segmentation, Handwritten Marathi Characters, Marathi Numbers, OCR.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 107-110
Riko Ervil ◽  
Dian Yudistira Rhamadan

Productivity is an alternative to evaluating the performance that has been done even one of the most effective ways in assessing the efficiency of using several inputs in producing certain outputs. the study was conducted at PT Johan Sentosa. The company is engaged in processing palm oil into CPO (crude palm oil) and kernels. In this case, the company must replace an important process called the sterilizer system from the horizontal sterilizer to the vertical sterilizer. This change will certainly have an impact on company productivity. In this study, the method used is Marvin E Mundel where partial productivity will be identified in the form of depreciation value index, material, labor, energy, and maintenance, and know the total production value index. The results of this study obtained a partial productivity index on the declining workforce, other partial productivity such as depreciation, material, labor, energy, and maintenance have increased while the index value of total productivity increased after a change in the sterilizer system.

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Alexis Leon Caulier ◽  
Vijay G. Sankaran

To enable effective oxygen transport, approximately 200 billion red blood cells (RBCs) need to be produced every day in the bone marrow through the fine-tuned process of erythropoiesis. Erythropoiesis is regulated at multiple levels to ensure that defective RBC maturation or overproduction can be avoided. Here, we provide an overview of different layers of this control, ranging from cytokine signaling mechanisms that enable extrinsic regulation of RBC production to intrinsic transcriptional pathways necessary for effective erythropoiesis. Recent studies have also elucidated the importance of post-transcriptional regulation and highlighted additional gatekeeping mechanisms necessary for effective erythropoiesis. We additionally discuss the insights gained by studying human genetic variation impacting erythropoiesis and highlight the discovery of BCL11A as a regulator of hemoglobin switching through genetic studies. Finally, we provide an outlook of how our ability to measure multiple facets of this process at single-cell resolution, while accounting for the impact of human variation, will continue to refine our knowledge of erythropoiesis and how this process is perturbed in disease. As we learn more about this intricate and important process, additional opportunities to modulate erythropoiesis for therapeutic purposes will undoubtedly emerge.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-12
Fangyuan Cheng ◽  
Tingting Zhang ◽  
Yue Liu ◽  
Yanan Zhang ◽  
Jiao Qu

Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous in environmental media, and their harmful effects on MPs on the ecosystem have attracted more and more attention. Once released into the environment, MPs can trigger oxidative degradation through ultraviolet (UV) to cause photoaging. Photoaging significantly affects the properties of MPs, which leads to changing their environmental behaviors and increasing environmental risks. In this review, the generation of MPs under UV irradiation and the influence of environmental factors on the photoaging of MPs were discussed. Photoaging of MPs is an important process affecting the migration, transformation and interaction of pollutants in water and soil. In order to fully predict the fate and environmental interaction of MPs, more researches are needed in the future to explore the photoaging behavior of different types of MPs under natural environmental conditions.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2574
Anna Trojak-Goluch ◽  
Magdalena Kawka-Lipińska ◽  
Katarzyna Wielgusz ◽  
Marcin Praczyk

Polyploidisation is an important process in the evolution of many plant species. An additional set of chromosomes can be derived from intraspecific genome duplication (autopolyploidy) or hybridising divergent genomes and chromosome doubling (allopolyploidy). Special forms of polyploidy are autoallopolyploidy and segmental allopolyploidy. Polyploidy arises from two basic processes: spontaneously occurring disturbances of meiotic division and induced by antimitotic agents’ disruption of mitosis. The first involves the induction and fusion of unreduced gametes, resulting in the formation of triploids and tetraploids. The second process uses antimitotics that disrupt cellular microtubules and prevent chromosome’s sister chromatids motion during anaphase. Colchicine, oryzalin, and trifluralin are the most commonly used antimitotics for inducing polyploids in plants. The exposure time and concentration of the antimitotics and the species, cultivar, genotype, and tissue type affect the efficiency of genome duplication. Polyploids are distinguished from diploids by increased cell size and vegetative parts of plants and increased content of secondary metabolites. Genome duplication generates several changes at the epigenetic level resulting in altered gene expression. Polyploidisation is used in plant breeding to overcome the non-viability and infertility of interspecific hybrids, obtain seedless polyploid cultivars and increase resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic factors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (2) ◽  
pp. 478-506
Salvador Pons Bordería ◽  
Elena Pascual Aliaga

As databases make Corpus Linguistics a common tool for most linguists, corpus annotation becomes an increasingly important process. Corpus users do not need only raw data, but also annotated data, submitted to tagging or parsing processes through annotation protocols. One problem with corpus annotation lies in its reliability, that is, in the probability that its results can be replicable by independent researchers. Inter-annotation agreement (IAA) is the process which evaluates the probability that, applying the same protocol, different annotators reach similar results. To measure agreement, different statistical metrics are used. This study applies IAA for the first time to the Valencia Espaol Coloquial (Val.Es.Co.) discourse segmentation model, designed for segmenting and labelling spoken language into discourse units. Whereas most IAA studies merely label a set of in advance pre-defined units, this study applies IAA to the Val.Es.Co. protocol, which involves a more complex two-fold process: first, the speech continuum needs to be divided into units; second, the units have to be labelled. Kripendorffs u -family statistical metrics (Krippendorff et al. 2016) allow measuring IAA in both segmentation and labelling tasks. Three expert annotators segmented a spontaneous conversation into subacts, the minimal discursive unit of the Val.Es.Co. model, and labelled the resulting units according to a set of 10 subact categories. Kripendorffs u coefficients were applied in several rounds to elucidate whether the inclusion of a bigger number of categories and their distinction had an impact on the agreement results. The conclusions show high levels of IAA, especially in the annotation of procedural subact categories, where results reach coefficients over 0.8. This study validates the Val.Es.Co. model as an optimal method to fully analyze a conversation into pragmatically-based discourse units.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (02) ◽  
Moh. Arifudin ◽  
Fathma Zahara Sholeha ◽  
Lilis Fikriya Umami

Planning is needed by various forms of organization, because this planning is the basic process of management in making decisions and actions. Planning is needed in any type of activity, whether it be organizational, corporate or community activities, and planning exists in every management function, because these functions can only carry out the decisions that have been determined in the planning. This article aims to explain the importance of planning in the Islamic education system. The results show that in management, planning is the process of defining organizational goals, creating strategies to achieve those goals, and developing organizational work activity plans. Planning is the most important process of all management functions because without planning the other functions of organizing, directing, and controlling will not be able to run. Good planning will result in good management. It is better to take decisions and actions in various forms of organization using the basic management process in the form of planning. In a plan, it is necessary to pay attention to the nature of a good plan to achieve the desired results.

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