Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus
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Lekha Dhanasekaran ◽  
N. P. Muralidharan

Introduction: Sandalwood powder (Santalum alba) is used if the skin is oily for removing dark spots on the skin. Sandalwood has an anti-tanning and anti-aging property. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) is mainly used to rejuvenate the skin. It helps to delay aging like wrinkles and also possesses other properties like antibacterial, antiseptic, and anti-inflammatory, and many other properties. Multani mitti helps the skin in many different ways like the reduction of pore size pore sizes, removing blackheads and removing whiteheads fading freckles, soothing sunburns, cleansing skin, improving blood circulation, complexion, reducing acne and blemishes, and gives a glowing effect to your skin as they contain many-particles which can inhibit various organisms. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, the antimicrobial viability of Turmeric, sandalwood and Multani Mutti was tested against Streptococcus mutans, Micrococci, and coagulase-negative staphylococcus. The microorganisms were filled in strong media, and culture containing stock suspensions was made and, in this way, standard strains of Streptococcus mutans, Micrococci, and Coagulase-negative staphylococci were obtained. Microorganisms were subcultured in fitting society media to affirm their virtue. Results: The zone of inhibition of turmeric against Streptococcus mutans is about 11mm. The zone of inhibition of turmeric against Micrococci is about 9 mm. The zone of inhibition of turmeric against Coagulase-negative staphylococci is about 13mm. There was no zone of inhibition for both sandalwood and Multani mitti for Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus mutans, and Micrococci. Conclusion: The study proves the turmeric has antimicrobial potential against Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus mutans,, and Micrococci with good prospects of development into antimicrobial face pack or face wash

Abstract For many years, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have been considered non-pathogenic bacteria. However, recently, CoNS are becoming more common bacteriological factors isolated from cases of chronic rhinosinusitis in humans. Moreover, most of them represent the multidrug-resistant or/and methicillin-resistant profile, which significantly increases the therapeutic difficulties. The aim of the study was to characterize profile of resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from cases of chronic rhinosinusitis in patients treated in a Medical Center in Warsaw in 2015–2016. The study material was derived from patients with diagnosed chronic rhinosinusitis treated at the MML Medical Center in Warsaw. The material was obtained intraoperatively from maxillary, frontal, and ethmoid sinuses. In total, 1,044 strains were isolated from the studied material. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were predominant, with the largest share of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Isolated CoNS were mainly resistant to macrolide, lincosamide, and tetracycline. Among the S. epidermidis strains, we also showed 35.6% of MDR and 34.7% of methicillin-resistant strains. The same values for other non-epidermidis species were 31.5% and 18.5%, respectively and the percentage of strains with MAR >0.2 was greater in S. epidermidis (32.6%) than S. non-epidermidis (23.9%). Although the percentage of strains resistant to tigecycline, glycopeptides, rifampicin and oxazolidinones was very small (2.3%, 1.9%, 1.4% and 0.7% respectively), single strains were reported in both groups. The study has shown a high proportion of MDR and methicillin-resistant CoNS strains, which indicates a large share of drug-resistant microorganisms in the process of persistence of chronic rhinosinusitis; therefore, isolation of this group of microorganisms from clinical cases using aseptic techniques should not be neglected.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S444-S445
Sandhya Nagarakanti ◽  
Eliahu Bishburg ◽  
Alexis Okoh ◽  
Sagy Grinberg ◽  
Madhu Suryadevara

Abstract Background Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) bacteremia is a common clinical finding, but is less commonly associated with infective endocarditis (IE). Echocardiography (Echo) is utilized when clinicians suspect the diagnosis of IE. We sought to evaluate the utilization and yield of Echo in patients who had 1 or ≥ 2 (+) blood cultures (BC) for CoNS, and correlate Echo results with a diagnosis of IE. Methods A retrospective review in a tertiary care hospital between 2013-2020. Patients with or without cardiac device, who had either 1 or ≥ 2 BC positive for CoNS and who underwent Echo were included. Modified Duke’s (MDC) criteria was used for the diagnosis of IE. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between BC positivity, device existence and the presence of a vegetation on Echo. Results We included 116 patients, median age 58 (41-70) years, 64 (55%) women. Cardiac device was present in 69 (59%): Automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator in 49 (71%), pacemaker in 11(16%), ventricular assist device in four (6%), intra-aortic balloon pump in five (7%). CoNS isolated from 1 BC in 53(46%) patients and from ≥ 2 in 63(54%) patients. Trans- thoracic Echo (TTE) was performed in 42(36%), trans- esophageal Echo (TEE) in 39 patients (33.6%). Sequential Echo (TEE after TTE) was performed in 34 patients (29%). “Definite” IE was diagnosed in none, “possible” IE in 30 (26%), the diagnosis was “rejected” in 86 (74%). Vegetations were noted on device lead in 13(43%) and on valves in 17(57%). Overall yield in patients classified as “possible” IE (n=30) was similar in patients with device (n=26) to those without a device (n=4) (22% vs. 3%; p=0.149). For patients with 1 BC positive for CONS, the presence of a device was not associated with a positive Echo yield (OR, 95% C.I: 1.8 (0.3, 12.9); p=0.474). Patients who had ≥ 2 BC for CoNS had the same Echo yield with or without a cardiac device (15% vs. 24% p=0.243). Conclusion In our medical center, patients with CoNS bacteremia, no patients had a “definite” diagnosis of IE. Yield of Echo was similar in patients with either one or ≥ 2 positive BC and there was no significant association with the presence of a device. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (10) ◽  
pp. 2787-1089
Muhammad Imran ◽  
Muhammad Naveed ◽  
Fazal ur Rehman ◽  
Khurram Shahnawaz ◽  
Farhan Zahoor ◽  

Objective: To find out clinical profile and etiological agents involved in Pediatric infective endocarditis. Study Design: A descriptive observational study. Place and Duration of the Study: The Department of Pediatrics, Sughra Shafi Medical Complex, Sahara Medical College, Narowal, Pakistan from April 2017 to March 2021. Material and Methods: A total of 195 children of both genders aged below 14 years and having endocarditis were enrolled. Endocarditis was labeled as per modified Duke’s criteria. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 26.0. Quantitative data like age was represented as mead and standard deviation. Qualitative data like gender, area of residence, clinical presentation, types of isolated microorganisms and underlying disease were shown as frequencies and percentages. Results: Out of a total of 195 children, 124 (63.6%) were male. Overall, mean age was noted to be 5.48+2.1 years. Fever was the commonest type of clinical presentation noted among 148 (75.9%) children followed by shortness of breath 101 (51.8%) and chest pain/discomfort 48 (24.6%). Congenital heart defects were the commonest form of underlying disease observed in 95 (48.7%) children. Blood culture findings revealed 112 (57.4%) samples to produce no growth while coagulase negative staphylococcus was the commonest etiological agent noted in 37 (19.0%) children. Conclusion: Majority of the children with infective endocarditis were male. Most common types of clinical presentation were fever and shortness of breath. Congenital heart defects formed major chunk of underlying disease. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was found to be the most common etiological agent. Keywords: Infective endocarditis, fever, shortness of breath, congenital heart defects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Aishath Maharath ◽  
Mariyam Shabeena Ahmed

Background. Bloodstream infections pose a significant health problem worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. It is important to have country-specific data for major pathogens causing bloodstream infections, in light of emerging resistance patterns of common bacterial isolates. Due to the scarcity of reports in this area, the aim of this study was to identify bacterial pathogens causing bloodstream infections among the study population. Methods. A retrospective analysis of blood culture samples received at the Department of Laboratory Medicine, Indira Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Malé, Maldives, was performed for reports between January 2016 and December 2017. Results. Out of the 471 culture-positive samples, 278 (59%) were males and 193 (41%) were females. Amongst the culture-positive samples, 338 (71.8%) Gram-positive organisms were isolated and 133 (28.2%) Gram-negative organisms were isolated. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) was the most frequently isolated blood-borne bacterial pathogen in this study, accounting for 53.6% and 50.9% of the isolates in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Other frequently isolated pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus (15.9% and 10.3%), Klebsiella spp. (10.5% and 16.4%), and Escherichia coli (7.1% and 10.8%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) revealed high percentage of resistance among the tested antimicrobials, ampicillin, cephalexin, cefotaxime, and gentamicin. Over the two years, a significant difference between the percentage resistance among paediatric and adult patients was observed for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) isolate resistance to ampicillin p ≤ 0.001 , cephalexin p ≤ 0.001 , cefotaxime p ≤ 0.001 , gentamicin p = 0.008 , and cotrimoxazole (SXT) p ≤ 0.001 . When comparing the significant antimicrobial resistance trends, it can be seen that Enterobacteriaceae isolates also demonstrated high resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin as well as second- and third-generation cephalosporins. Conclusions. This study highlights the major bacterial pathogens involved in bloodstream infections in the healthcare setting of Malé, Maldives, and antibiotic resistance patterns. The results indicate that further characterization of bacteremia and its resistance patterns is needed to combat bloodstream infections.

Ayman Mubarak

The goal of this study was to isolate, count, and identify coagulase-negative Staphylococci from meat and dairy products collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, as well as to perform molecular identification of the mecA gene. In addition, the prevalence of these bacteria among the examined food products was determined. Ninety samples of both meat and dairy products were collected and examined between February 2018 and August 2019. Mannitol salt agar and VITEK 2 system were carried out and VITEK 2 system was used to identify all bacterial isolates. Also, the molecular technique was used to detect the target gene of mecA among CoNS. The proportion of samples in which Staphylococcus species isolated is 13.33% (Camel meat), 6.66% (Beef mortadella), 6.66% (Turkish labneh), 33.33% (Cows cheese), 6.66% (Goat labneh), 13.33% (Nabulsy cheese), 13.33% (Haloumi goat cheese) and 6.66% (Akawy white cheese). Counts of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (as cfu/gm) of sample were around 11×104, 10×104, 9×104, 12×104, 4×105, 11×104 (Nabulsy cheese), 14×104 and 12×104, respectively. The Prevalence of species in both products was 3.30% (Staphylococcus vitulinus), 53.30% (Staphylococcus saprophyticus), 16.66% (Staphylococcus hominis), 6.66%, (Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus lentus) and 13.33% (Staphylococcus sciuri). Furthermore, results showed methicillin specific mecA gene was harbored in 40 % of the CoNS.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 140-144
Nadia Aslam ◽  
Nazma Kiran ◽  
Naima Mehdi

Background: Coagulase-negative Staphylococci are members of stable skin inhabitants. They are frequent contaminants in blood cultures and can lead to unnecessary exposure of patients to antimicrobial drugs and excess hospital costs. This study aims to estimate the frequency of Coagulase-negative Staphylococci in blood cultures and their antibiograms. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in a tertiary care hospital over one year from April 2018 to March 2019. Blood cultures received in the laboratory were processed to isolate Coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Susceptibility to various antimicrobial drugs was detected by disc diffusion method and E-strips. Results: A total of 13802 blood cultures were processed in one year. 1750 blood cultures yielded bacterial growth and 374 blood cultures were positive for Staphylococci. Out of these 374 blood cultures, 97 were categorized as Staphylococcus aureus and 277 were Coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Out of 13802 total blood cultures performed during study period, 277 blood cultures positive with Coagulase negative Staphylococcus means contamination rate of 2% out of total blood cultures. 277 Coagulase negative Staphylococcus positive cultures out of 1750 positive blood cultures means contamination rate of 15.8% out of positive blood cultures. Among Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, 68.2% isolates were resistant to Cefoxitin, 95.3% to Penicillin, 85.1% to Erythromycin, 37.5% to Ciprofloxacin, 59.6% to Gentamicin, 68.6% to Fusidic acid, 3.6% to Teichoplanin, and 1.4% to Linezolid. All isolates were sensitive to Vancomycin. Conclusion: The rate of blood culture contamination was 2% out of total blood cultures and 15.8% out of positive blood cultures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (5) ◽  
pp. 1736-1745
Jing Ping ◽  
Naiwei Li ◽  
Le Huang ◽  
Zhaohua Zhou ◽  
Xihong Zhang ◽  

We aimed to explore the distribution of common pathogens and bacterial resistance in our hospital from 2017 to 2020, and to standardize clinical medication guidance. The pathogens isolated from the submitted specimens were identified, and drug susceptibility results were interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines (2017-2020). A total of 43,588 specimens were collected from patients treatedfrom 2017 to 2020, and 6,285 strains of pathogens were isolated. The most common pathogens were Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae and Klebsiella pneumoniae.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for 32.85%, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS) accounted for 78.79%. The resistance rates of MRSA and MRCNS to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were significantly higher than those of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus and methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. The resistance rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae to erythromycin, tetracycline and clindamycin was higher than 80%. The detection rates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae producing ESBL strains were 62.2% and 25.6%, respectively. Totally, 769 carbapenem-resistant strains were detected, of which carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) accounted for 66.6%, followed by carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA). A total of 202 CRE strains were detected, which were mainly isolated from respiratory tract and urine specimens. CRAB, CRKP and CRPA had higher resistance rates to antibacterial drugs. Gram-negative bacilli are the most common pathogens from 2017 to 2020. Considering that pathogens have high drug resistance, it is recommended to strengthen clinical management and rational application of antibiotics, thus reducing the risk of nosocomial infections.

Joshua T Smith ◽  
Cheryl P Andam

Abstract Members of the gram-positive bacterial genus Staphylococcus have historically been classified into coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CoPS) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) based on the diagnostic presentation of the coagulase protein. Previous studies have noted the importance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination in the more well-known CoPS species Staphylococcus aureus, yet little is known of the contributions of these processes in CoNS evolution. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships, genomic characteristics and frequencies of HGT in CoNS, which are now being recognized as major opportunistic pathogens of humans. We compiled a dataset of 1,876 publicly available named CoNS genomes. These can be delineated into 55 species based on allele differences in 462 core genes and variation in accessory gene content. CoNS species are a reservoir of transferrable genes associated with resistance to diverse classes of antimicrobials. We also identified nine types of the mobile genetic element SCCmec, which carries the methicillin resistance determinant mecA. Other frequently transferred genes included those associated with resistance to heavy metals, surface-associated proteins related to virulence and biofilm formation, type VII secretion system, iron capture, recombination and metabolic enzymes. The highest frequencies of receipt and donation of recombined DNA fragments were observed in Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus caprae, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and members of the Saprophyticus species group. The variable rates of recombination and biases in transfer partners imply that certain CoNS species function as hubs of gene flow and major reservoir of genetic diversity for the entire genus.

2021 ◽  
pp. 102788
Hanane Choukrani ◽  
Anass Maaroufi ◽  
Boutar Ould Mohamed Sidi ◽  
Mohamed Ghali Bennouna ◽  
Abdennasser Drighil ◽  

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