Breast Fed
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Reshma Nakte ◽  
Nimmathota Arlappa ◽  
Tata Arunakumari ◽  
Nagalla Balakrishna

Aim: To assess the association of mother’s literacy status with infant & young child feeding (IYCF) practices and nutritional status of urban under 5 year children. Methods: A community based cross- sectional study was carried out among 356 urban children under 5 years from 30 randomly selected Anganwadi Centres (AWCs) in Hyderabad, during 2017-18. The information regarding infant & young child feeding (IYCF) practices was obtained from the mothers of under 5 year children. Anthropometric measurements such as height and weight of all the children were measured adopting standard procedures and using standard anthropometric equipment. Results: About half of the mothers reportedly initiated breast feeding to their newborns within one hour of birth. The proportion of mothers fed pre-lacteals and colostrum to newborn was 35% and 96% respectively. A higher proportion of literate mothers (45.1%) exclusively breast fed their infants for the first 6 months as compared to their illiterate counterparts (32.9%). Significantly a higher proportion (63.3%) of literate mothers initiated complementary feeding to their infants soon after completion of 6 months as against 50% in illiterate mothers (p<0.05). The proportion of children with undernutrition i.e. underweight, stunting and wasting was 38.5%, 40.6% and 16.8%, respectively. The prevalence of underweight and stunting was significantly (p<0.05) higher among the children of illiterate mothers as compared to literate mothers. Conclusion: In general, mother’s literacy was significantly associated with the IYCF practices as well as nutritional status of their children. Therefore, respective Governments should initiate appropriate measures to increase female literacy levels in India.

Rita Narayanan ◽  
B. Suresh Subramonian

Background: The probiotic microorganism consists mostly of the strains of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. Bifidobacterial species are common members of the infant gut where they form up to 91 per cent of the total micro flora in breast-fed babies and up to 75 per cent in formula fed infants Methods: Bifidobacterial species were isolated and identified from the faeces of breast fed infants by molecular techniques. Molecular tools like 16S rDNA targeted genus and species specific mPCR primers were used for confirmation. A total of 4 isolates were identified namely B. longum (IB10 and IB12) B. breve (IB39) and B. bifidum (IB42). The identified species were screened for probiotic properties like bile tolerance, antimicrobial activity and tolerance to acidity. Ideal isolate of B. longum was incorporated in the preparation of whey based malted nutraceutical spray dried food and fed to weaned piglets. Result: B. longum (IB10) was the ideal probiotic when compared to other isolates as it had maximum antimicrobial activity and tolerance to bile and acidity. It was noted that isolate IB10 (B. longum) had an inhibitory zone ranging from 3.03 to 2.95 mm against B. cereus, S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa due to acid and antibacterial compounds. Isolate B. longum (IB10) was incorporated in the preparation of whey based malted nutraceutical spray dried food. The influence of feeding five grams of the spray dried nutraceutical malt food containing B. longum at 107cfu/g per day on animal production, gut health and gut architecture in young weaned piglets were also investigated. The probiotic regime had positive effects on the health of piglets when compared to the control group. A significant two log reduction in the coliform count was observed in the faeces of weaned piglets fed with Bifidobacterial nutraceutical powder than that of control. Thus, these probiotic bifidobacteria can be considered as safe adjuncts for preparation of dairy nutraceuticals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 1006-1014
Diadie Oumarou Halima ◽  
Balla Abdourahamane

L’allaitement maternel exclusif (AME), mode d’alimentation de prédilection pour les nourrissons, demeure insuffisamment pratiqué.  ’objectif général de cette étude était de contribuer à la pratique optimale de l’AME au niveau de la communauté urbaine de Niamey. Cette étude transversale, d’une durée de 3 mois a porté sur un échantillon de 400 mères d’enfants de 0-6 mois choisi, par commodité au cours de leurs consultations nourrisson au niveau des centres de santé. Les résultats ont montré que l’initiation précoce à l’allaitement maternel a concerné 48% d’enfants ayant été mis au sein dans l’heure qui suit la naissance, et que seulement 33, 5% des mères ont pratiqué l’AME. Cependant, l’analyse statistique traduit une association entre l’allaitement maternel exclusif et certains des facteurs testés. Ces facteurs clés permettant d’optimiser la pratique de l’AME demeurent: la connaissance de la durée et de la définition de l’AME, la connaissance des avantages de l’AME pour la mère tels que : retarde la fertilité et renforce le lien mère/enfant ; la connaissance des avantages pour l’enfant notamment: enfant grossit bien ou l’enfant est toujours en bonne santé et enfin le caractère économique de l’AME. Ces données permettent une meilleure orientation des interventions axées sur la pratique optimale de l’allaitement maternel à Niamey.   English title: Key determinants of exclusive breastfeeding optimal practice in the urban community of Niamey, Niger Exclusive breastfeeding, the preferred feeding mode for infants, remains insufficiently practised. The overall objective of this study was to contribute to the optimal practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Niamey urban community. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 400 mothers of children aged 0-6 months chosen for convenience during their infant consultations at the health centre level. The results showed that 48% of children who were breast-fed within one hour of birth were introduced early to breastfeeding, and only 33.5% of mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding. However, the statistical analysis shows an association between exclusive breastfeeding and some of the factors tested. These key factors for optimizing the practice of exclusive breastfeeding remain: knowledge of the duration and definition of breastfeeding, knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding for the mother such as: delays fertility and strengthens the mother/child bond; knowledge of the benefits for the child in particular: child grows well or the child is always healthy and finally the economic character of the breastfeeding. These data allow a better orientation of interventions focused on the optimal practice of breastfeeding in Niamey.  

2021 ◽  
Vol 85 (1) ◽  
pp. 2725-2729
Mahmoud Mohamed Mohamed El-Sayed Mousa ◽  
Alaa Zidan Ibrahim ◽  
Mohamed Osman Hafez ◽  
Doaa Metwaly Abd Elmonem

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (A) ◽  
pp. 639-643
Imelda Fitri ◽  
Eryati Darwin ◽  
Eva Chundrayetti ◽  
Hotmauli Hotmauli ◽  
Eliya Mursyida ◽  

INTRODUCTION : Inbalance of microbiota in gastrointestinal tract have the risk of getting gastrointestinal infections, one of them is diarrhea. AIM : The aim of this study was to determine bifidobacterium and eschericia coli microbiota and compare the microbiota obtained between exclusive breast fed and formula fed Indonesian infants village andalas. METHODS : This study was an observational study with cross sectional comparative design. Samples faeses of infant was taken by Multistage Simple Random Sampling with total sample of 28 infants in range 0-6 months. This study was conducted in Pauh community health center areas, Village Andalas . The infant’s feces was taken then send to Microbiology Laboratorium of Dr. M. Djamil Hospital Padang city, Indonesia. The instruments used were a questionnaire and a colony counter. Data were processed and analyzed by using independent t test and Mann Whitney test. RESULTS : The fecal microbiota of the 0-6 months Indonesian infants village andalas two species including bifidobacterium and eschericia coli were common commensal intestinal microbiota in all infants. The predominant intestinal microbiota in the breast fed infants bifidobacterium average 3,59 x 109 CFU/g (p < 0,05). the mean eschericia coli microbiota from the formula fed infants 66,8 x 109 CFU/g (p < 0,05) CONCLUSION : Exclusive breastfeeding infant’s faeses contain more bifidobacteria and formula breastfed infant’s faeces contain more escherichia coli bacteria. These findings advance our understanding of the gut microbiota in healthy infants. They also provide new evidence infant diet as determinants of this essential microbial community in early life

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (8) ◽  
pp. 2121-2122
Muhammad Sarfraz ◽  
Manzoor Ahmad ◽  
Sameen Qureshi ◽  
Mohammad Shaiq Mahmood ◽  
Hussnain Ashfaq ◽  

Objective: To determine the rate of vitamin B 12 deficiency among exclusively breast fed term infants in central Punjab Method: This descriptive case series included all 120 exclusively breast fed, term, and healthy infants with age range 1-6 months at Children, Hospital, Lahore. The maternal socio-demographic details in addition to infants’ anthropometric measurements were recorded and CBS and serum Vit B12 levels were evaluated by sending the samples to the hospital lab. We used SPSS 16th vesion for data analysis. Results: Mean age of the infants was 3.25+1.47 months. 58.33%(n=70) were male and 41.67%(n=50) were female infants. The mean serum vitamin B12 levels were recorded as 196.81 (±121.432)pg/mL. Frequency of low vitamin B12 (<200 pg/ml)in infants was recorded in Low serum vitamin B12 levels (<200 pg/ml) was seen in 66 (55%) of infants. Conclusion: The rate of vit B12 deficiency is higher in EBF infants and due to its an important role in neurologic development during infancy, it is necessary to address this issue in infants

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
pp. 444-449
Giovanna D’Amico ◽  
Corinne De Laet ◽  
Guillaume Smits ◽  
Deborah Salik ◽  
Guillaume Deprez ◽  

We present a case of a transient acquired zinc deficiency in a breast-fed, 4-month-old-male prematurely born infant, with acrodermatitis enteropathica-like symptoms such as crusted, eroded, erythemato-squamous eruption in periorificial and acral patterns. The laboratory investigations showed low zinc levels in the infant’s and the mother’s serum and in the mother’s milk; genetic analysis did not show any mutation in the SLC39A4 gene, involved in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Acquired zinc deficiency is often found in premature infants because of their increased requirement, the low serum and milk zinc levels in breastfeeding women being also an important risk factor, as in this case. A prompt zinc supplementation is essential for the good prognosis of the disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 41-49
Tyas Pratama Puja Kusuma ◽  
Dania Gusmi Rahayu ◽  

The problem discussed in this study is designing a system that can be used as an ASI bank. The Posyandu in Bantarsoka Village is very concerned about the importance of breastfeeding for babies. A lot of babies who are not breast fed are a concern. On the other hand, many breastfeeding mothers also have excess breast milk. The absence of a system that accommodates information about ASI at the Posyandu in Bantarsoka Village makes the Posyandu less optimal in helping its residents overcome the problem of breastfeeding distribution. With current technological developments, the idea emerged to create an information system for ASI management, which later could be a solution to the problems. The ASI Bank Management System aims to provide a forum for mothers who have been excess breast fed to be able to donate their breast milk to babies who do not get their mother's milk intake. This study uses the Waterfall method which is carried out with a structured approach, starting from the system requirement's stages, analysis, design, coding, testing, and maintenance. The result of this research is an information system in the form on the ASI Bank website. With this system, it is hoped that it can help with the problem of breastfeeding distribution. The system created can properly manage and record breastfeeding ownership, who is the donors and recipients. By utilizing Internet technology, information dissemination can be accessed quickly and easily.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (7) ◽  
pp. 1183
Varun Ganjigunta ◽  
Varsha Suresh Ahirrao ◽  
Premalatha R. ◽  
Ravichander B.

Background: Iron deficiency anemia in 3-6 months-old infants is often neglected. Its presence in healthy infant of less than 6 months of age is largely debated. Neglecting IDA in this critical phase of growth can lead to serious consequences. The aim and objective of the study was to estimate the frequency of IDA in 3-6 months old infants, admitted in rural tertiary care hospital and to study its risk factors.Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in the pediatric department of rural tertiary care hospital. 100 infants in the age group 3-6 months were included in the study. Relevant maternal and infant factors were noted. CBC with blood indices, peripheral blood smear and reticulocyte count were studied. Anemia in them was defined as hemoglobin <9.5 g/dl. IDA was diagnosed based in history, examination, indices, and peripheral smear.Results: 22% of infants of 3-6 months had IDA. 40.9% of infants with IDA were low birth weight compared to 11.5% without IDA (p value<0.05). All pre-terms included in the study had IDA. 16% of term, normal birth weight, exclusively breast-fed infants had IDA. Underweight and stunting were seen in 31.8 % and 30.8% of IDA infants compared to 9% and 5.4% of infants without IDA.Conclusions: IDA was quite common in infants less than 6 months and also seen in healthy, term and exclusively breast-fed babies, so universal iron supplementation before 6 months need to be considered in National Iron plus Initiative in India. Preterm, LBW babies and babies with NICU stay are at higher risk of IDA. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 105 (7S) ◽  
pp. S68-S68
Spolidoro J ◽  
Oliveira T ◽  
Dallo E ◽  
Favero B ◽  
Baldissera M ◽  

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