intestinal pathogens
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2022 ◽  
pp. 399-434
P. Bosi ◽  
D. Luise ◽  
P. Trevisi ◽  

Intestinal pathogens causing either clinical or sub-clinical infections increase pig morbidity and (or) mortality, resulting in economic losses and wider socio-economic impacts on pig production. An optimally functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is fundamental to combatting intestinal pathogen colonisation at all the stages of life. This requires successful development and maintenance of key gut functions: digestive function; the gastro-intestinal cell line barrier; gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT); and gut-associated microbiota. This chapter first discusses research on genes associated with pathogen resistance and porcine immune response. It then reviews risk factors associated with gut mucosa impairment as well as dietary strategies to control risk factors and improve gut functionality in preventing intestinal pathogen colonisation.

Mehtap Çiftçi ◽  
Nilgün Öncül

Since coliform bacteria are common both in the intestine and in nature (soil, plant, etc.), they are considered as a sanitation indicator in the food industry. It is known that the majority of bacteria defined as fecal coliform in the coliform group are Escherichia coli. The presence of E. coli or fecal coliform bacteria in any sample is an indication that the necessary hygienic measures are not taken during production, storage, and sale. That means the sample is directly or indirectly contaminated with faeces, and/or other intestinal pathogens may also exist. In this study, raw milk, freshly squeezed fruit juices, unpackaged ice cream, shaved ice, and ice-cold samples were purchased from the famous touristic destination Fethiye and analyzed for coliform bacteria. For this purpose, the samples were purchased from local marketplaces, buffets, cafes, patisseries, restaurants, and roadsides at Fethiye. In total 60 samples were analyzed using Violet Red Bile (VRB) Agar. The results of coliform bacteria ranged

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 169-176
Soudabeh Etemadi ◽  
Omid Raiesi ◽  
Muhammad I. Getso ◽  
Vahid Raissi ◽  
Hosnie Hoseini

Cryptosporidium species are important intestinal pathogens with widespread distribution in humans and other hosts. Whereas the parasite causes acute and self-limiting gastroenteritis in people with healthy immune systems, many reports on this infection around the world are limited to people with defective or suppressed immune systems who suffer from a persistent and deadly infection. Using laboratory-serological and molecular methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium species in immunocompromised and healthy human samples, recent studies in Iran indicated that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in different samples varied between 0 to 14%. The samples in Iranian studies included human fecal and diarrheic samples from diarrheic children, patients with gastroenteritis, immunocompromised individuals, and people in contact with livestock. Furthermore, some species were reported based on molecular studies including Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis. Some studies have also reported Cryptosporidium meleagridis. In this review study, data were collected regarding the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in high-risk individuals such as children and immunocompromised individuals. The results revealed that the higher prevalence of C. parvum in Iranian studies in the last 10 years may be attributed to the transmission of infection from animal sources.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3492
Fu-Chen Huang

Salmonella infection remains one of the major public health problems in the world, with increasing resistance to antibiotics. The resolution is to explore the pathogenesis of the infection and search for alternative therapy other than antibiotics. Immune responses to Salmonella infection include innate and adaptive immunity. Flagellin or muramyl dipeptide from Salmonella, recognized by extracellular Toll-like receptors and intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain2, respectively, induce innate immunity involving intestinal epithelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, dendric cells and lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells. The cytokines, mostly interleukins, produced by the cells involved in innate immunity, stimulate adaptive immunity involving T and B cells. The mucosal epithelium responds to intestinal pathogens through its secretion of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptides. Chemokines, such as IL-8 and IL-17, recruit neutrophils into the cecal mucosa to defend against the invasion of Salmonella, but induce excessive inflammation contributing to colitis. Some of the interleukins have anti-inflammatory effects, such as IL-10, while others have pro-inflammatory effects, such as IL-1β, IL-12/IL-23, IL-15, IL-18, and IL-22. Furthermore, some interleukins, such as IL-6 and IL-27, exhibit both pro- and anti-inflammatory functions and anti-microbial defenses. The majority of interleukins secreted by macrophages and lymphocytes contributes antimicrobial defense or protective effects, but IL-8 and IL-10 may promote systemic Salmonella infection. In this article, we review the interleukins involved in Salmonella infection in the literature.

2021 ◽  
Arbab Sikandar

Wide range of Antibiotics is being used as feed additives in Animal industry in order to get rid from pathogens and as growth promoters in developing world. But after the suggested prohibition on using antibiotics, products such as probiotics are getting substantial importance in nutrition because of their non-resistant and non-residual possessions. Basic aim of the chapter is to highlight fruitful effects of Bacillus Subtilis as non-antibiotic gut modulator and growth promoter in broiler chickens. Probiotics are the living culture of microorganisms. They flourish in the gut of the host and fortify the growth of valuable commensals in the digestive tract by minimizing the destruction triggered by pathogens, boost up the immune system, supporting the integrity of the gut mucosa and maintain a stability and balance of normal microflora. Probiotics can be used as best substitute to conventional antimicrobial therapy. In addition, it has been observed that probiotics plays a role in growth enhancement by augmenting useful enzymes in the body and promote the growth of other normal commensals such as Lactobacillus and having effect on gut luminal pH. Probiotics are quite active against intestinal pathogens in several ways, viz. including improved immune elimination, competing for mucosal attachment, striving for crucial nutrients, or producing antimicrobial complexes contrary to numerous enteropathogens. It can be concluded that B. Subtilis has the ability to modulate gut and immune system histophysiology and histomorphology and can be used as safe antimicrobial candidate in poultry nutrition. Knowledge of such possessions of the B. Subtilis as probiotics and the mechanisms of action may enable the researchers to manipulate the use of such alternatives for better growth production, and safe and healthy poultry industry.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 2513
Ilavenil Soundharrajan ◽  
Yong Hee Yoon ◽  
Karnan Muthusamy ◽  
Jeong-Sung Jung ◽  
Hyun Jeong Lee ◽  

Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging condition that increases the risk of spreading and prolonging infectious diseases globally. Therefore, a new alternative strategy for antibiotics is required urgently to control pathogens spreading. Probiotics are considered as an alternative for antibiotics that inhibit pathogens. In the present study, potent lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated and screened for their probiotic characteristics and antagonistic activity against intestinal pathogens by agar well diffusion, Time and Dose-dependent killing assay, minimum inhibitor, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC), and co-culture methods. The Lactococcus lactis RWP-3 and RWP-7 fermented the different carbohydrate substrates and produced different extracellular enzymes. Both isolates showed significant tolerant capability in the gastric, duodenal, and intestinal juices. In addition, RWP-3 and RWP-7 had hydrophobicity and aggregation properties in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the cell-free secondary metabolites (CFS) of RWP-3 and RWP-7 showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis. A co-culture study revealed that the RWP-3 and RWP-7 strongly compete with pathogen growths. RWP-3 and RWP-7 showed strong antagonistic activities against tested pathogens with significant probiotic characteristics, suggesting that these strains obtained could be used as an alternative strategy for the antibiotic to control infectious pathogens.

Elim Gamze Has ◽  
Mustafa Akçelik

Salmonella is known as one of the main factors of food-borne gastroenteritis, and with this feature, it poses a great risk in terms of public health and economic losses. It is estimated that of the approximately 94 million cases of salmonellosis occurring in the world each year (about 85 percent of these are food-borne), an average of 150,000 result in death. Current social trends highlight the important health benefits of fresh produce in our daily diet. As an irony; Uncooked consumption of fresh herbal products is increasingly identified as a source of transmission for pathogens of intestinal origin, and epidemics occurring in this way are spreading rapidly. Today, the frequency of anthropogenic pathogen outbreaks associated with fresh produce, spices, and nuts has surpassed those associated with foods of animal origin. Human pathogens in the production chain; It can be transferred to plant material by basic means such as the use of animal manure, contaminated irrigation water, biological vectors (insects and animals) and contaminated seeds. In the light of these data, many intestinal pathogens have been identified as phyllo sphere-associated bacteria. Despite all these findings, there are many unknowns on the persistence and infectivity of Salmonella in contaminated plant hosts. In this review article, the factors affecting the attachment, colonization and survival of Salmonella on plant surfaces, as well as the information on the infection processes that continue with the invasion of plant tissues are discussed in the light of contemporary literature data.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
K. E. Huus ◽  
T. T. Hoang ◽  
A. Creus-Cuadros ◽  
M. Cirstea ◽  
S. L. Vogt ◽  

AbstractChild undernutrition is a global health issue associated with a high burden of infectious disease. Undernourished children display an overabundance of intestinal pathogens and pathobionts, and these bacteria induce enteric dysfunction in undernourished mice; however, the cause of their overgrowth remains poorly defined. Here, we show that disease-inducing human isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroidales spp. are capable of multi-species symbiotic cross-feeding, resulting in synergistic growth of a mixed community in vitro. Growth synergy occurs uniquely under malnourished conditions limited in protein and iron: in this context, Bacteroidales spp. liberate diet- and mucin-derived sugars and Enterobacteriaceae spp. enhance the bioavailability of iron. Analysis of human microbiota datasets reveals that Bacteroidaceae and Enterobacteriaceae are strongly correlated in undernourished children, but not in adequately nourished children, consistent with a diet-dependent growth synergy in the human gut. Together these data suggest that dietary cross-feeding fuels the overgrowth of pathobionts in undernutrition.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (F) ◽  
pp. 784-793
Musjaya Guli ◽  
Sri Winarsih ◽  
Wisnu Barlianto ◽  
Oski Illiandri ◽  
S. P. Sumarno

Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which, when consumed in adequate quantities as food ingredients, provide health benefits to the host. Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces, are three probiotics that are intensively used as probiotics in humans and animals. Probiotics have beneficial effects on health when given adequate amounts. The concept of probiotics on human health, namely modulating the gut microbiota and its effect on the host. Probiotics play an important role in maintaining intestinal integrity through a number of different interactions, including changes in cytokine expression in the mucosa. Probiotics compete with intestinal pathogens for mucosal receptors, thereby increasing interepithelial resistance. Probiotics such as Lactobacillus casei sp GG strain was used as a prophylaxis that could increase the expression of epithelial mucin, thereby reducing the translocation of pathogenic bacteria. Abnormal local immune response is characterized by decreased secretion of IgA, thus allowing enterocyte attachment and local translocation of bacterial antigens, which are the main stimulation of pathological events. Colonic stasis can promote the growth of pathogenic bacteria which allows malignant porin bacterial strains to thrive. The gut microbiota has a major influence on human health. The microbial population has an important role in the host, such as the metabolic activity of probiotics producing energy and nutrient absorption, developing the host immune system, and preventing colonization and infection of pathogens. Lactobacillus reuteri is a hetero-fermentative bacterium that lives in the digestive tract of humans. L. reuteri has been used to treat infant necrotizing pseudomembrane. In this paper, the mechanism of L reuteri to increase host immunological response will be reviewed.

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